I am grateful for the kind permission of publishers to incorporate material that previously appeared in altered form: Portions of Chapter 3 previously appeared in a slightly altered version as "Merit Selection Committees and the Politics of Appointing U.S. Magistrates," The Justice System Journal 12 ( 1987): 210-231. Copyright 1987 by The Institute for Court Management of the National Center for State Courts. Reprinted by permission. Portions of Chapters 9 and 10 appeared in an altered version as "Assessing the Consequences of Judicial Innovation: U.S. Magistrates' Trials and Related Tribulations," Wake Forest Law Review 23 ( 1988): 455-490. Copyright 1988 by the Wake Forest Law Review Association. Reprinted by permission. In addition, a portion of Chapter 3 previously appeared in altered form as "Who Are the U.S. Magistrates?", Judicature 71 ( 1987): 143-150. Copyright 1987 by Christopher E. Smith. Portions of Chapters 9 and 10 previously appeared in altered form as "United States Magistrates and the Processing of Prisoner Litigation," Federal Probation 52 ( December 1988): 13-18.
This project would never have been possible without the generous assistance of U.S. magistrates and district judges who, contrary to the predictions of other social scientists, permitted me to observe the usually hidden details of their working lives within several federal courthouses. I will always be deeply grateful for these special opportunities to see the behind-the-scenes interactions of actors within the federal judiciary not only because they provided the basis for the analysis and conclusions in this study, but also because they contributed immeasurably to my personal education about judicial institutions. In addition, numerous judges, lawyers, and other officials involved with the federal judiciary were very helpful in answering my questions and providing useful documents and information.
I am indebted to George Cole for his advice and encouragement throughout this project. I also received helpful comments at various stages from Fred Kort, Robert Gilmour, and C. Neal Tate. A number of friends and relatives provided assistance on various matters: Frances Payne, Donald Vereen, Lisa Zimmer, and Peggy and Ernie Zimmer. I