The American Dole: Unemployment Relief and the Welfare State in the Great Depression

By Jeff Singleton | Go to book overview

lated by Hopkins in May--the elimination of federal relief. An added benefit was that the plan could be implemented without immediate congressional action simply by transferring funds from the PWA.

In late October Williams prevailed on a somewhat skeptical Hopkins to propose the plan to Roosevelt. A rather sketchy outline of a program employing 4 million workers was prepared during a trip to the Midwest; Hopkins returned to Washington and presented it to Roosevelt on October 29. To the FERA administrator's apparent shock, FDR immediately accepted the plan and agreed to finance it with public works funds. ( Hopkins later told a biographer that he left the meeting with Roosevelt "walking on air.") 101 The result was the CWA, one of the most radical and dramatic public policy experiments of the New Deal era.


NOTES
1.
For important discussions of the evolution of the term "welfare" see Linda Gordon , Pitied but Not Entitled ( New York: Free Press, 1994), 1-2; Michael Katz, Improving Poor People ( Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995), 19-20, 24.
2.
On the Hoover administration's use of the term see New York Times, December 13, 1930, 2; December 18, 1930; April 14, 1931, 12; Josephine Brown, Public Relief, 1929-1939 ( New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1940), 105. Harry Hopkins, in a report to Roosevelt in late 1935 on the history of the FERA, noted that "the greater part of relief [in May of 1933] was extended as direct relief, or the dole." New Deal officials avoided the term in the early months of the FERA but used it more frequently as justification for the transition from federal relief to the work program (WPA) in 1934. Hopkins to Roosevelt, "Genesis, History and Results of the Federal Relief Program," August 23, 1935, FERA Files, Box 2, same File as title. See also "'Relief Can't Last,' Hopkins Warning," Press Clip: May 23, 1933, Federal Emergency Relief Administration--Old Subject File.
3.
Thus, for example, Robert Kelso reported that the governor of Rhode Island was "determined in the application of these federal relief funds to keep it out of the 'pauper aid' channel and free from the ruts and dole-like processes of that kind of aid." RFC Files, Box 93, Rhode Island Correspondence File. See also Gertrude Springer, "The New Deal and the Old Dole," Survey Graphic 22, no. 7 ( July 1933): 347.
4.
Organizations of the unemployed.
5.
Edward A. Williams, Federal Aid for Relief ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1939), 48-49; Brown, Public Relief 1929-1939, 126; Donald S. Watson, "The Reconstruction Finance Corporation," in Clarence E. Ridley and Orin F. Woltin , eds., The Municipal Yearbook ( Chicago: International City Manager's Association, 1937), 375.
6.
See, for example, Clarke Chambers, Seedtime of Reform: American Social Service and Social Action, 1918-1933 ( Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1963), 202; Charles H. Trout, "Welfare in the New Deal Era," Current History 65 (July-December 1973): 11; Walter Trattner I, From Poor Law to Welfare State, 6th ed. ( New York: Free Press, 1979), 280-284; Frances Fox Piven and Richard A.Cloward

-120-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The American Dole: Unemployment Relief and the Welfare State in the Great Depression
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 248

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.