The American Dole: Unemployment Relief and the Welfare State in the Great Depression

By Jeff Singleton | Go to book overview

Table 6
Unemployment Rates: Estimates for 120 Urban Areas and Other National Estimates
Year 120 Urban Areas Lebergott NICB
1930 9.8% 8.9% 7.8%
1931 19.7% 16.3% 16.3%
1932 29.8% 24.1% 24.9%
1933 30.4% 25.2% 25.1%
1934 24.3% 22.0% 24.9%
1935 22.8% 20.3% 16.3%

the fact that the relief caseload increasingly absorbed people defined as "unemployable" in the mid-1930s. These included those who perhaps should have qualified for the "categorical" programs (mothers' aid, Old Age Assistance, etc.). In 1934 New Deal officials appear to have believed that approximately 20 percent of the caseload consisted of "unemployables," and the estimates of some social workers were even higher.

Table 6 compares unemployment rates derived from my estimates fox the 120 urban areas with those of Lebergott (the most widely cited estimates) and the the NICB. 4 The other estimates appear to be lower, in part, because they include agricultural employment, which declined at a much slower rate between 1930 and 1933.


NOTES
1.
Emma A. Winslow, Trends in Different Types of Public and Private Relief in Urban Areas, 1929-1935 (Children' Bureau Publication No. 237) ( Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1937), 2-3; Katherine Lenroot, "Government Provision for Social Work Statistics on a National Scale," Proceedings of the National Conference on Social Work ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1931), 415-418; Ralph Hurlin to Emma Winslow ( December 10, 1936), Children's Bureau Files, Box 821, File 12-8-1.
2.
For the "urban areas" and their population see Winslow, Trends in Different Types of Public Private Relief Urban Areas, 1929- 1935, 65-68.
3.
National Industrial Conference Board, Conference Board Economic Record ( March 20, 1940), 81-82. The procedure used here is similar to that used by the Conference Board in its annual unemployment estimates. See 89-92.
4.
Ibid., 84. Lebergott estimates as cited in Historical Statistics of the United States, Series D 1-10, 126. There were attempts to revise Lebergott's data in the 1970s to take into account the "discouraged worker" effect on the labor force and the impact of the New Deal's employment programs. The latter effort, in particular, created considerable controversy among scholars of American eco

-224-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The American Dole: Unemployment Relief and the Welfare State in the Great Depression
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in American History ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Chapter 1 - Unemployment Relief and the Welfare State 1
  • Notes 18
  • Chapter 2 - The "Rising Tide of Relief" 27
  • Notes 48
  • Chapter 3 - The Myth of Voluntarism 57
  • Notes 82
  • Chapter 4 - The National Dole 93
  • Notes 120
  • Chapter 5 - Work Relief 131
  • Notes 160
  • Chapter 6 - Ending the Dole as We Knew It 173
  • Notes 199
  • Conclusion 209
  • Notes 217
  • Appendix - Relief Estimates and the Children's Bureau Series 221
  • Notes 224
  • Bibliography 227
  • Index 239
  • About the Author 245
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 248

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.