motivation and ability, they may benefit ad recall and brand evaluations in low involvement settings.
Second, how are the effects of ad retrieval cues moderated by ad repetition? Repetition may differentially influence ad retrieval cue effectiveness: To the extent that repetition leads to stronger brand name links to the ad memory trace and greater incorporation of communication effects into brand knowledge in memory, an ad cue will be less beneficial; but to the extent that repetition leads to greater elaboration of ad information (i.e., more stored communication effects) without affecting brand name links in memory, an ad cue will be more beneficial.
Third, how are the effects of ad retrieval cues moderated by brand name prominence? The point in an ad at which time the brand name first appears (e.g., at the beginning or the end of the ad) may affect processing and ad retrieval cue effectiveness. Delaying brand identification until the end of a television commercial, for example, may increase attention levels during commercial exposure and result in many communication effects stored in the ad memory trace, but also create only weak links from this trace to the brand name.
Fourth, how do retrieval cues work across ads in different media? Edell and Keller ( 1989) showed how the audio track from a TV ad could be used as a cue on the radio. They defined radio replay to occur when a consumer views a TV ad and later hears the audio track from the TV ad as a radio ad. They argued that the outcomes from radio replay depended on the relative extent of comprehension, retrieval, and elaboration processes that consumers undertake during the reinforcing radio ad exposure. They experimentally showed that when subjects heard a radio replay, they did very little critical, evaluative processing and instead appeared to be mentally replaying the TV ad video in their minds. An interesting research question is how consumers process print ads that visually and/or verbally reinforce TV ads. Print ad reinforcement may be an effective way to capture readers' attention and encourage more evaluative brand processing. In other words, initial ad processing on TV may be passive and primarily focused on the ad execution itself but later print reinforcement may cause consumers to consider more carefully the advertised brand claims and form an overall evaluation of the ad and the brand.
For their comments on earlier drafts of this chapter, I thank Sheri Bridges, Meg Campbell, Bruce Clark, Itamar Simonson, Brian Wansink, Rich Yalch, and especially Andy Mitchell. Financial support for the studies reported in this chapter from the Marketing Science Institute, the Institute of Business and Economic Research at the University of California at Berkeley, and a Stanford University Graduate School of Business faculty fellowship provided through the generosity of James and Doris McNamara is greatly appreciated.
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Publication information: Book title: Advertising Exposure, Memory, and Choice. Contributors: Andrew A. Mitchell - Editor. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of publication: Hillsdale, NJ. Publication year: 1993. Page number: 43.