A Survey of Indian Assimilation in Eastern Sonora

By Thomas B. Hinton | Go to book overview

4
THE LOWER PIMAS

THE LOWER PIMAS, or Pima Bajos, classified by Sauer into three groups, the Ures of the lower Sonora River, the Nebomes of the lower Mátape and middle Yaqui River valleys, the Yécoras of the Sierra Madre ( Sauer 1934: 3), were exposed to the same intensive mission influences as were the Opatas. The first Jesuit mission at Onabas among the Nebomes was probably established in 1621 ( Bannon 1955: 32). Both they and the Ures were converted soon after. The Yécoras were not completely Christianized until later in the century. The Lower Pimas, however, accepted the padres with considerably less enthusiasm than did their Opata neighbors. Mission accounts speak disparagingly of their lack of industry, devotion to drunkenness, and indifference to Christianity. The Nebomes joined the Seris in several revolts in the eighteenth century. Possibly as a result of this greater resistance to assimilation, they have survived as separate ethnic groups to a much greater extent than have the Opatas.

Of the three groups of Lower Pimas defined by Sauer, two, the Nebomes and the Yécoras, retain their language and remain distinct ethnic entities. As the present situation differs among the various Pima divisions, they will here be treated separately.

I visited the Nebomes at Onabas on two occasions and spent seven days with them. The Yécoras or mountain Pimas were visited more briefly, as was another Pima group to the north at La Junta, Chihuahua. The Ures Pimas were not contacted personally; information concerning them comes from casual observations around Ures and talks with non-Pimas from Ures and with Onabas Pimas. Thus, data dealing with this group was of necessity superficial.

Among the Pimas as a whole the writer noted a much greater degree of ethnic awareness and a pride of identity largely lacking among the Opatas. The Pimas are proud of their origin and prefer to be called Pimas. When speaking Spanish, the Nebomes often call themselves poblanos and the Yécoras call themselves paisanos. The terms Nebome and Yécora are not known. In their own language Lower Pimas call themselves O-o-dam.

The Pimas have retained a greater degree of physical differentiation from the non-Indians than have the Opatas. The great majority of the mountain Pimas show little or no Caucasian mixture. Consequently in these areas there is a definite and unmistakable line of physical demarkation between the Indians and gente de razon.


THE URES

THE URES AREA of the middle Sonora River and surrounding ranches and rancherías has a population containing numerous families who are still called Pimas and who are still Indians physically. Probably there are between 200 and 250 of these people. From the available information it appears that these Pimas are going the way of the Opatas and that their situation is roughly similar. Although the Pima language was spoken by the old people within the last twenty years, it may now be gone as the young have not learned it. The Onabas Pimas tell of a settlement called Báhui a mile from Ures where they used to visit Pimas who spoke their language; this was some thirty years ago. It was mentioned by the Onabas group that most of the Ures Pimas now retain the "color" of Pimas, nothing else. A few additional Pima descendants are mentioned by the Sonorans as living around San Miguel de Horcasitas. I did not visit this town.


THE NEBOMES

AT ONABAS on the lower Yaqui River is found the largest concentration of the remnants of the Nebomes. There are 125 living members of this group, 62 of whom are assertedly unmixed.

-26-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A Survey of Indian Assimilation in Eastern Sonora
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 1
  • Preface 5
  • Introduction 6
  • Contents 7
  • 1: Contemporary Socio-Racial Classifications 9
  • 2 - THE OPATAS AND JOVAS 12
  • 3 - MODERN DISTRIBUTION OF OPATAS AND JOVAS 19
  • 4 - THE LOWER PIMAS 26
  • CONCLUSIONS 30
  • References 31
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 32

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.