Criticism and the Color Line: Desegregating American Literary Studies

By Henry B. Wonham | Go to book overview

a site of dynamic cultural exchange, with Howells and Du Bois positioned beside one another on the richly contested psychological terrain of double consciousness.


Notes
1.
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, "As a Friend of the Colored Man," Boston Evening Transcript, February 24, 1912: 12. Du Bois's column, originally published as part of a seventy-fifth birthday tribute to Howells, is reprinted in Critical Essays on W. D. Howells, 1866-1920, ed. Edwin H. Cady and Norma W. Cady ( Boston: G. K. Hall, 1983), 215.
2.
African-American characters perform important roles in some of Howells early writings, including a sketch entitled "Mrs. Johnson," Atlantic Monthly ( Jan. 1868), reprinted in Suburban Sketches ( New York: Hurd & Houghton, 1871). More often they perform cameo roles, as in A Hazard of New Fortunes, ed. David J. Nordloh et al. ( 1890; rpt. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976) and An Open-Eyed Conspiracy ( New York: Harper, 1897).
3.
William Dean Howells, An Imperative Duty, ed. David J. Nordloh et al. ( 1891; rpt. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969), 27. Subsequent references to this edition are provided in the text.
4.
The serial version of the novel was severely criticized for its degrading representation of Boston's Irish population, which Howells modified for book publication. For an account of the novel's reception, see Martha Banta "Introduction" to the Indiana edition, ix-xi.
5.
Anna Julia Cooper, A Voice from the South ( 1892; rpt. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 206.
6.
The Critic ( Jan. 16, 1892): 34. Quoted in Banta, ix.
7.
No evidence of a direct relationship has been uncovered, but several critics have discussed the striking parallel between Howells An Imperative Duty and Harper Iola Leroy, usually in order to highlight the inferiority of Howells's novel. See, for example, Kenneth Warren, Black and White Strangers: Race and American Literary Realism ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 66-67.
8.
Houston A. Baker Jr., Workings of the Spirit: The Poetics of Afro-American Women's Writing ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 34; Warren, Strangers, 65-66.
9.
Cooper, Voice, 201.
10.
Eric J. Sundquist, To Wake the Nations: Race in the Making of American Literature ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993), 571. There is no definitive evidence that Du Bois read Howells's novel prior to 1897, though it is extremely likely that he did. As a graduate student at Harvard in 1891, when the serial version appeared, Du Bois would almost certainly have felt a personal stake in Howells's representation of the city's African- American community, and it might reasonably be supposed that he discussed the novel with his professor, William James, who read An Imperative Duty that year and spoke very highly of it in correspondence with Howells. Moreover, when Du Bois did mention the novel in his 1912 telegram to the Boston Evening Transcript, he incorrectly identified Rhoda as the first-person narrator, implying that his comments were based on a relatively distant memory.
11.
W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches ( Chicago: McClurg, 1903), 3.
12.
Among those scholars is Kenneth Warren, whose discussion of Henry James's use

-137-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Criticism and the Color Line: Desegregating American Literary Studies
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 300

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.