First-generation communications satellites operated in the 8/6 gigahertz (GHz) or
David Rees, Satellite Communications: The First Quarter Century of Service ( New
York: John Wiley, 1990).
Canada is familiar with the spill-over effects of international communications satellites and their implications for national sovereignty better than any other nation. For
an overview of the experience of Canada and European countries, see
Heather Hudson, Communications Satellites: Their Development and Impact ( New York: Free Press, 1990).
Digital video compression is an information-processing technique implemented in
software that makes it possible to compress television signals by a factor of anywhere
from three to eight or ten or more, depending on the content, before the signal is transmitted to the satellite and to decompress it with a special device once it is received in
"Wal-Mart: What Makes It So Successful", Globe and Mail, 18 January 1994,
George A. Codding, The Future of Satellite Communications ( San Francisco: Westview Press, 1990).
Under the FCC's new rules, cellular companies are able to apply for licenses
outside their existing service areas where they serve less than 10 percent of the population.
Work on the Navstar system began in 1978 when ten nations signed a memorandum of understanding pledging cooperation to develop the system for international use.
The system became fully operational in 1993 when the last of the twenty-four satellites
was put into orbit. Each satellite contains four atomic clocks that broadcast time data
and other information identifying itself and describing its path. Receivers on the ground
use the information to calculate their location. For more information, refer to "Who
Knows Where You Are? The Satellite Knows", Business Week, 10 February 1992, pp. 120-121. For a history of Navstar/GPS, see "The Global Positioning System", IEEE
Spectrum, December 1993, pp. 36-46.
For more information on telecommunications and urban development, see
William Dutton et al.
, Wired Cities: Shaping the Future of Communications ( New York: G. K.
Hall, 1987), and "Reinventing New York: Competing in the Next Century's Global
Hugh O'Neill and
Mitchell L. Moss, Urban Research Center, Robert
Wagner Graduate School of Public Services, New York University, 1991.
Under pressure from the U.S. Court of Appeals, Judge Greene agreed to lift the
MFJ restrictions on RBOC entry into information services under certain conditions on July 25, 1991. A federal appeals court subsequently abolished the prohibition altogether
in October. See "Court Lets Baby Bells Branch Out", New York Times, 8 October 1991,