War Powers: The President, the Congress, and the Question of War

By Donald L. Westerfield | Go to book overview
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Appendix C
Two Hundred and Eight Instances of United States "Use of Force" Abroad without a Declaration of War, 1798-1989

(See Appendix D for Declared Wars)
1798-1800 Undeclared naval war with France.
1801-1805 Tripoli. The First Barbary War.
1806 Mexico (Spanish territory). Capt. Z. M. Pike's invasion of Rio
Grande.
1806-1810 Gulf of Mexico. American gunboats off Mississippi delta
against Spanish and French.
1810 West Florida (Spanish territory). Gov. Claiborne with troops
east of Mississippi.
1812 Amelia Island and other parts of East Florida, then under
Spain. Occupation by Gen. George Matthews.
1813 West Florida (Spanish territory). Gen. Wilkinson seizes Mo-
bile Bay.
1813-14 Marquesas Islands. Fort built on Nukahiva Island.
1814 Spanish Florida. Gen. Andrew Jackson takes Pensacola.
1814-1825 Caribbean. Fighting in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo,
and Yucatán.
1815 Algiers. The Second Barbary War.
1815 Tripoli. Decatur's squadron at Tunis and Tripoli.
1816 Spanish Florida. United States destroys Nicholis Fort.
1816-1818 Spanish Florida. First Seminole War.
1817 Amelia Island (Spanish territory off Florida). United States
lands and fights smugglers.

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