Trade, Industrialization, and Integration in Twentieth-Century Central America

By Irma Tirado de Alonso | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
I want to thank Dr. Juan Luis Moreno Villalaz for sharing his deep insights on the Panamanian economy with me, and Jorge Sanguinetty, from Development Technologies, and Elio Londero, from the Interamerican Development Bank, for their comments on a previous draft.
2.
However Noriega ( 1989, p. 26) evaded the answer to this question, arguing that it is the task of a historian and transcends the scope of his work.
3.
For instance, when the NAFTA agreement is implemented, Mexico will be a better site for some industries that are currently, or would have been, located in other LAC countries.
4.
For instance, in 1991 the Interamerican Development Bank financed a large technical cooperation program to help reformulate the CACM; the European Communities have supported the CACM and Andean Common Market secretariats; the German-sponsored Friedrich Ebert Foundation has supported extensive research in the CACM and the Andean Common Market, and so on.
5.
See McClelland ( 1972, pp. 75-78) for the CACM case.
6.
For details see Consejo Monetario Centroamericano ( 1989) and Panama ( 1990).
7.
For details see Panama ( 1990).
8.
This view was frequently expressed in interviews with both public and private sector officials.
9.
Most Panamanian economists do not see this point. However, Fernández ( 1992) developed it in a very clear and complete way.
10.
Perhaps the only country to have a more severe policy is Cuba.
11.
The exceptions are the agreement with Yugoslavia made in 1971 and the one with Poland in 1991.
12.
Copies of these agreements, descriptions of the mechanisms used and other relevant information is found in Serprocomer (n.d.).
13.
This system is similar to the one used by LAFTA in the early 1960s, which led to a quick increase in intraregional trade and a slowdown in trade growth after 1965 ( Cline, 1983).
14.
For details, see Panama ( 1989).
15.
For instance, $100,000 a year for cardboard boxes.
16.
For details, see Panama ( 1990).
17.
For details, see Panama ( 1989).
18.
An item is defined with the 8-digit trade nomenclature.
19.
In the literature there is some confusion about the data. Noriega's ( 1989) discussion equated the free trade volume with the total trade that benefited from the bilateral agreements. However, our 1989 estimation of total negotiated trade based on actual data shows that the negotiated trade volume exceeded the published free trade volume. Therefore, it appears that Noriega's decision to equate free and negotiated trade was in error.
20.
For details, see Panama ( 1989) and Serprocomer (n.d.).
21.
This pattern is similar to that found in the intra-CACM system, which benefits from integration agreements, and is the opposite to that in the ACM system, where most trade did not benefit from ACM preferences.

-178-

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Trade, Industrialization, and Integration in Twentieth-Century Central America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface xi
  • PART I INTRODUCTION 1
  • 1: CENTRAL AMERICA: THE CHALLENGES OF TRADE, INDUSTRIALIZATION, and INTEGRATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 3
  • 2: A MACROECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF CENTRAL AMERICA 15
  • SUMMARY AND OVERVIEW 36
  • Note 36
  • PART II TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 39
  • 3: THE STRUCTURE OF TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 41
  • SUMMARY 58
  • Notes 59
  • References 59
  • 4: IDUSTRIALIZATION and TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 61
  • Notes 85
  • References 85
  • 5: MEXICO AS A POTENTIAL MARKET FOR CENTRAL AMERICAN and CARIBBEAN PRODUCTS 87
  • Notes 98
  • PART III INDUSTRIALIZATION AND INTEGRATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA 101
  • 6: THE INTENSITY OF CENTRAL AMERICAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION 103
  • CONCLUSIONS 111
  • Notes 113
  • Notes 114
  • 7: ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS IN CENTRAL AMERICA 117
  • References 149
  • 8: PANAMA: ECONOMIC INTEGRATION ALTERNATIVES, IMPLICATIONS, and PERSPECTIVES 153
  • Notes 178
  • References 179
  • 9: THE CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET: AN ANALYSIS Of WELFARE EFFECTS FROM 1970 TO 1984 183
  • Conclusion 202
  • Notes 203
  • Notes 204
  • PART IV SPECIAL ISSUES 207
  • 10: ECONOMIC PROSPECTS FOR CENTRAL AMERICA IN THE DECADE OF THE 1990S 209
  • Notes 220
  • REFFERENCES 220
  • 11: A REVIEW OF ECONOMIC POLICIES and STRATEGIES FOR TRADE and INDUSTRIALIZATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA 223
  • CONCLUSION: WHERE TO FROM HERE? 232
  • References 235
  • 12: THE DILEMMA OF EXPORT RIVIVAL: NICARAGUAN AGRICULTURE AT A TURNING POINT 237
  • Notes 251
  • References 251
  • 13: CHALLENGES and PROSPECTS FOR CENTRAL AMERICA IN A GLOBAL TRADE CONTEXT 253
  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY 271
  • SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 277
  • Index 279
  • ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS 289
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