Trade, Industrialization, and Integration in Twentieth-Century Central America

By Irma Tirado de Alonso | Go to book overview

is to maintain the democracies in the region, help is needed in terms of additional funds for human and nonhuman infrastructures. Investing in these societies as the world has invested in Costa Rica would significantly add to the credibility of the democratic process and, at the same time, buy time for the process to work. As these societies become more democratic, their incorporation into the world economy will be smoother and under better terms than is currently the case.

If, on the other hand, the nature of the problem is a permanent one, then more funds are always welcome, but in addition, what is needed are new alternatives to the whole growth and development process. A realization of long lasting disequilibrium exists or that not all societies can be rich may change the whole thinking process about the Central American region and allow for a different and more efficient use of resources within a democratic environment.


NOTES
1.
For details, see Bulmer-Thomas ( 1987), pp. 276-77.
2.
For details, see Moncarz and Lipner ( 1986).
3.
See IMF, International Financial Statistics, 1987 and 1991.
4.
These were comments of K. Lipner to the authors on June 11, 1992.
5.
For details, see Shallat ( 1989), p. 221.

REFFERENCES

Bulmer-Thomas Victor. ( 1987). The Political Economy of Central America since 1920, Cambridge University Press.

Caceres Luis Rene, and George Irvin. ( 1989). "The Reconstruction of the CACM and European Cooperation." In S. Holland and G. Irvin (eds.), Central America: The Future of Economic Integration. Colorado: Westview Press.

Corbo V. and P. Rojas. (n.d.). "World Bank Supported Adjustment Programs: Country Performance and Effectiveness." The World Bank PRE Working Paper Series no. 623.

Edelman M., and Joanne Kenen. (Eds.). ( 1989). The Costa Rica Reader. New York: Grove Weidenfeld.

Fuentes J. Alberto. ( 1991). "Ajuste e Inversion: La Luz al Final del Tunel?." Banco de Guatemala, 3, no. 11: p. 36.

Lipner Kenneth. ( 1992). [comments about travel to Central America during interview with authors at Florida International University, FL]. June 11, 1992.

Marcella Gabriel. ( 1990). "The Latin American Military, Low Intensity Conflict, and Democracy." Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 32, no . 1. (Spring).

Moncarz Raul, and Kenneth Lipner. ( 1986). "El Papeldel Sector Publico en la Economia Centroamericana." Empresa Publica, 1, no. 2 (August).

Pollin Robert, and Alexander Cockburn. ( 1991). "The World, the Free Market, and the Left." The Nation, February 24.

-220-

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Trade, Industrialization, and Integration in Twentieth-Century Central America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Illustrations vii
  • Preface xi
  • PART I INTRODUCTION 1
  • 1: CENTRAL AMERICA: THE CHALLENGES OF TRADE, INDUSTRIALIZATION, and INTEGRATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 3
  • 2: A MACROECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF CENTRAL AMERICA 15
  • SUMMARY AND OVERVIEW 36
  • Note 36
  • PART II TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 39
  • 3: THE STRUCTURE OF TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 41
  • SUMMARY 58
  • Notes 59
  • References 59
  • 4: IDUSTRIALIZATION and TRADE IN CENTRAL AMERICA 61
  • Notes 85
  • References 85
  • 5: MEXICO AS A POTENTIAL MARKET FOR CENTRAL AMERICAN and CARIBBEAN PRODUCTS 87
  • Notes 98
  • PART III INDUSTRIALIZATION AND INTEGRATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA 101
  • 6: THE INTENSITY OF CENTRAL AMERICAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION 103
  • CONCLUSIONS 111
  • Notes 113
  • Notes 114
  • 7: ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS IN CENTRAL AMERICA 117
  • References 149
  • 8: PANAMA: ECONOMIC INTEGRATION ALTERNATIVES, IMPLICATIONS, and PERSPECTIVES 153
  • Notes 178
  • References 179
  • 9: THE CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET: AN ANALYSIS Of WELFARE EFFECTS FROM 1970 TO 1984 183
  • Conclusion 202
  • Notes 203
  • Notes 204
  • PART IV SPECIAL ISSUES 207
  • 10: ECONOMIC PROSPECTS FOR CENTRAL AMERICA IN THE DECADE OF THE 1990S 209
  • Notes 220
  • REFFERENCES 220
  • 11: A REVIEW OF ECONOMIC POLICIES and STRATEGIES FOR TRADE and INDUSTRIALIZATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA 223
  • CONCLUSION: WHERE TO FROM HERE? 232
  • References 235
  • 12: THE DILEMMA OF EXPORT RIVIVAL: NICARAGUAN AGRICULTURE AT A TURNING POINT 237
  • Notes 251
  • References 251
  • 13: CHALLENGES and PROSPECTS FOR CENTRAL AMERICA IN A GLOBAL TRADE CONTEXT 253
  • BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY 271
  • SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 277
  • Index 279
  • ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS 289
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