International Organizations and Environmental Policy

By Robert V. Bartlett; Priya A. Kurian et al. | Go to book overview

NOTES

An earlier draft of this chapter was presented at the Summer Workshop on International Organization Studies, Dartmouth College, July 1992, sponsored by the Academic Council on the United Nations System and the American Society of International Law. I am grateful to the conference participants and to several anonymous referees for their suggestions.

1.
The difference between coordination and cooperation is discussed below and in Hardin ( 1982) and Stein ( 1990).
2.
I do not attempt to predict the extent of environmental cooperation that will occur, which is a separate question. I am investigating the potential role of international organizations in whatever cooperation does occur. The two may be linked if states that are protective of their sovereignty refuse to cooperate on issues where they perceive such cooperation would require surrender of authority to international organizations.
3.
See the discussion of the link between regime theory and functionalism and utilitarianism in Krasner ( 1988).
4.
For examples of this approach, see Keohane ( 1984); Krasner ( 1983a); Oye ( 1986a); and Stein ( 1983, 1990). The most explicit formulation is found in Keohane ( 1984, chs. 5-6).
5.
The standard definition of "international regime" is that used by Krasner: "International regimes are defined as principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures around which actor expectations converge in a given issue-area: " ( 1983b:1).
6.
For a more thorough discussion of the impact of distributive issues on international environmental cooperation, see D'Anieri ( 1993).
7.
A third point of view is that of Oran Young, who contends that the nature of the issues does not tell us much about the role of organizations. Young ( 1989b:46) contends: "A more compelling argument centers on the proposition that incentives to create organizations in conjunction with international regimes flow from the character of the regime under consideration," rather than on the objective structure of the issue. This view throws even more uncertainty into the question of the potential role of IOs as tools in international cooperation.
8.
Many, including Chayes and Chayes ( 1991). would contend that compliance issues on international environmental cooperation are extremely problematic and that formation of organizations is necessary to overcome the problem.
9.
Jacobson ( 1984). Kay and Jacobson ( 1983), and Le Prestre ( 1986) have discussed IOs as independent actors in international cooperation. I am grateful to an anonymous referee for bringing these sources to my attention.
10.
Krasner posits four ways in which institutions can "feed back" on "basic causal variables ": altering "actors' calculation of how to maximize their interests," altering "the interests themselves," providing "a source of power to which actors can appeal," and by altering "the power capabilities of different actors, including states" ( 1983c:361-67). My categorization is not meant to contradict or supersede his; it is simply a different categorization. These categories are neither distinct nor all encompassing, but rather provide a general scheme of examining a set of interrelated phenomena.

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