sociated them with crime and poor work attitudes. The discrimination was not
entirely racial since members of other racial groups in the area besides blacks were
also cast as undesirable and since employers did hire black West Indian immigrants.
Employers relied on referrals from existing workers to determine which workers
would be reliable and honest.
Based on his research on blacks and Mexican-Americans in Stockton, California, John Ogbu points out that, while parents encourage children to get a good
education, their low-level jobs, unemployment, and problems with "the system"
convey a different message. To quote Ogbu: "The result, inevitably, is that such
children become increasingly disillusioned about their ability to succeed in adult
life through the mainstream strategy of schooling" (p. 158). See Ogbu ( 1990).
As one example of the dissatisfaction with the capacities of workers, about
half the small manufacturers responding to a National Association of Manufacturers survey reported that a lack of skilled labor and lack of basic education skills
are two major problems. See U.S. Congress ( 1990).
Lynch Lisa, "The Economics of Youth Training in the United States," Economic Journal 103 ( September 1993): 1292-1302.
Germany did experience a shortfall of places during the years 1982-1986,
but this was an exceptional period that combined a serious recession with a peak
level of seventeen-year-olds. See Steedman ( 1993).
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Robert Lerman and
Theodora Ooms. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
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Bishop John. 1993. "Improving job matches in the U.S. labor market". Brookings papers on economic activity: Microeconomics 1: 335-90.
Bluestone Barry. 1995. The polarization of American society: Victims, suspects, and mysteries to unravel. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.
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Economist. 1992. Education survey. 21 November, 11.
Farber Henry. 1995. "Are lifetime jobs disappearing? Job duration in the United States: 1973-1993". Industrial Relations Section Working Paper No. 341. Princeton University.
Gordon Robert. 1996. "Problems in the measurement and performance of service- sector productivity in the United States". National Bureau of Economic Re search Working Paper 5519 (March).
Holzer Harry. 1992. "Youth and the labor market of the nineties". In Dilemmas in youth employment programming: Findings from the Youth Research and Technical Assistance Project. Washington, D.C.: Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor.
Juhn Chinhui, and
Kevin M. Murphy. 1995. "Inequality in labor market outcomes". Economic Policy Review 1, no. 1 (January): 26-34.
Kasinitz Philip. 1993. "The real jobs problem". Wall Street Journal, 26 November, A18.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The National Government and Social Welfare:What Should Be the Federal Role?.
Contributors: John E. Hansan - Editor, Robert Morris - Editor.
Publisher: Auburn House.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1997.
Page number: 41.
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