Social Learning: Psychological and Biological Perspectives

By Thomas R. Zentall; Bennett G. Galef Jr. | Go to book overview

companions. (Similarly, in food luring, domestic cockerels have been shown to tailor their vocal signals both to the nature of the food referent and to that of the conspecific receiver ( Marler, Dufty, & Pickert, 1986a, 1986b). In this case egoistic benefits cannot suffice to bring about the full response. Thus the door is open to cheating, e.g., withholding vital information, if no benefit is expected from passing it on. A qualitative species difference, such as this one, seems to transcend mere species differences in the "salience of stimuli" and the "motivation" of the subjects involved ( Shettleworth, 1984) and, thus, appears to mirror a genuine constraint of the learning mechanism, i.e., on the behavior of both the potential tutor and the potential learner.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

My sincere thanks go to all who were involved in the experimental work: H.-W. Böcking, U. Ernst, E. Frankenberg, W. Hoffmann, E. Kretzschmar, C. Lombardi, B. Stevens, and W. Vieth. W. Windt critically read the manuscript. I also gratefully acknowledge the stimulating discussions in the Tuesday colloquium of the Arbeitsgruppe. Dr. W. Scherzinger generously donated the Brazilian pygmy owl. The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft supported the work over many years by various grants.


REFERENCES

Baerends G. P., Brouwer R., & Waterbolk H. T. ( 1955). Ethological studies on Lebistes reticulatus (Peters): I. An analysis of the male courtship pattern. Behaviour, 8, 249-334.

Berlyne D. E. ( 1967). Arousal and reinforcement. Nebrafka Symporimm on motivation (pp. 1-110). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Curio E. ( 1969). Funktionswelse und Stammesgeschichte des Flugfeinderkennens einiger Darwinfinken (Geospizinae). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 26, 394-487.

Curio E. ( 1971). "Die akustische Wirkung von Feindalarmen auf einige Singvögel". Journal für Ornithologie, 112, 365-372.

Curio E. ( 1975). The functional organization of anti-predator behaviour in the pled flycatcher: A study of avian visual perception. Animal Behaviour, 23, 1-115.

Curio E., Ernst U., & Vieth W. ( 1978). The adaptive significance of avian mobbing. II. Cultural transmission of enemy recognition in blackbirds: Effectiveness and some constraints. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 48, 184-202.

Curio E., & Regelmann K. ( 1985). The behavioural dynamics of great tits (Parms major) approaching a predator. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 69, 3-18.

Diamond J. M. ( 1985). Rats as agents of extermination. Nature, 318, 602-603.

Fleuster W. ( 1973). "Versuche zur Reaktion freilebender Vögel auf Klangattrappen verschiedener Buchfinkenalarme". Journal für Ornithologie, 114, 417-428.

Frankenberg E. ( 1981). The adaptive significance of avian mobbing. IV. "Alerting

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