here. I have shown that reading and spelling processes are very closely related in skilled readers and spellers. However, this should not be construed to mean that we can leave the acquisition of spelling skill to the work of reading instruction and practice. This is because the memory requirements for spelling English words accurately exceed the memory requirements for reading words accurately. Moreover, acquiring knowledge of the alphabetic system is central to development and should fall within the province of spelling instruction. It is unlikely that as students learn to read more and more words, they also necessarily acquire more advanced levels of alphabetic knowledge. In addition, teaching students to read without also teaching them to spell may result in reading and spelling skills that are less closely related, a condition characterizing poor readers and spellers. It is clear that students need explicit spelling instruction as well as explicit reading instruction. According to my theory, the key to effective instruction is integration, that is, fostering close articulation among reading and writing knowledge sources and processes so that their acquisition is mutually facilitative and reciprocal. There is no getting around it by subordinating spelling to the job of computer spell-checkers. Poor spellers do not develop into skilled readers. Spelling instruction must remain an important goal of teachers and schools.
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