Technology in Education: Looking toward 2020

By Raymond S. Nickerson; Philip P. Zodhiates | Go to book overview
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direct approach to enhancing learning for appropriate transfer in classrooms somewhat like those we see today. The actual embodiments of these ideas will surely be influenced, not only by the winds of technological and scientific innovation in the next several decades, but by the willingness of the complex social structures of educational and research institutions to tackle these intricate problems. We can be sure of one thing: Whatever the specifics may be, it will be a truly exciting period for "putting knowledge to use."


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank the Spencer Foundation for current support of our work on learning generalizable thinking skills with interactive technologies. Portions of this chapter will appear in "Socializing the knowledge transfer problem," International Journal of Educational Research, Fall 1987. The U.S. Department of Education, National Institute of Education, IBM Corporation, National Science Foundation, and the Xerox Foundation have also supported earlier research whose results contributed to the perspective outlined here. The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the policies of any of these institutions.


REFERENCES

"American Association for Advancement of Science" ( 1984). An assessment of programs that facilitate increased access and achievement of females and minorities in K-12 mathematics and science education. AAAS 84-14. Washington, DC: AAAS.

Beck I. L., & Carpenter P. A. ( 1986). "Cognitive approaches to understanding reading". American Psychologist, 41, 1098-1105.

Belmont J. M., & Butterfield E. C. ( 1977). "The instructional approach to developmental cognitive research". In R. Kail & J. Hagen (Eds.), Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition (pp. 437-481). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Belmont J. M., Butterfield E. C., & Ferretti R.P ( 1982). "To secure transfer of training instruct self-management skills". In D. K. Detterman & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), How and how much can intelligence be increased (pp. 147-154). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Bereiter C., & Scardamalia M. ( 1985). "Cognitive coping strategies and the problem of inert knowledge". In S. Chipman, JW Segal, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills: Current research and open questions (Vol. 2, pp. 65-80). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bereiter C., & Scardamalia M. ( 1986). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bloomberg D. (Ed.). ( 1986, May). Digests of recent research: Intelligent Systems Laboratory: Mid 1983-Mid 1986. Palo Alto, CA: Xerox Palo Alto Research Centers.

Bransford J. D., & Franks J. J. ( 1976). "Toward a framework for understanding learning". In G. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 10, pp. 93-127). New York: Academic Press.

Bransford J. D., Sherwood R. D., & Hasselbring T. S. ( 1985, November). Computers, videodiscs, and the teaching of thinking. Paper presented at the Computers and Complex Thinking Conference, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

Bransford J. D., Stein B. S., Arbitman-Smith R., & Vye N. J. ( 1985). "Three approaches to improving thinking and learning skills". In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Think ing and learning skills: Relating instruction to basic research

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