From School to Work: A Comparative Study of Educational Qualifications and Occupational Destinations

By Yossi Shavit; Walter Müller et al. | Go to book overview

The final set of analyses examines the effect of college quality on first entry position and includes only those respondents who attended four-year universities and two-year junior colleges. The college quality variable is constructed on the basis of type of institutions of higher education (two-year junior colleges or four-year universities), and the difficulty of entrance examination. Three categories of college quality for male respondents are: highly competitive four-year universities; competitive four-year universities; and other four-year universities and two-year junior colleges. Because the number of female respondents who attended highly competitive four-year institutions is small, the college quality variable for female respondents has the following three categories: highly competitive universities or competitive four-year universities; other four-year universities; and two-year junior colleges. The distribution of college quality by gender is shown in Tables 9.5.a and 9.5.b.

The pattern of the relationship between college quality and first entry position is very similar to that of the relationship between high-school quality and first entry position. The average occupational status and the entry EGP class position are not significantly different among graduates of differing college quality for men and women. The average occupational status score is 53 points for male graduates and 51 points for female graduates, irrespective of the quality of college attended. Among both male and female graduates, about 42 per cent started as the service class, and about 47 per cent as the routine non-manual class, irrespective of college quality.

The size of the firm in which college graduates were employed, however, is affected by the quality of college attended. As shown in Table 9.7.a, male graduates from highly competitive four-year universities had significantly better chances of starting employment in either large or medium-sized firms as opposed to small firms. Similarly, in Table 9.7b female graduates of highly competitive or competitive four-year universities had better chances of being hired by large firms than by small firms. 13 Therefore, it is the highly competitive institutions which confer a distinctive advantage for labour-market entry.


CONCLUSION

Educational credentials are a powerful determinant of labour-market entry position. They influence the socio-economic status and social class of first job, and firm size at entry. The effects of educational credentials are most apparent on first occupational status. For both men and women, occupational prestige scores increase more or less linearly with the level of education, with a degree from a four-year university producing particularly large returns.

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From School to Work: A Comparative Study of Educational Qualifications and Occupational Destinations
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS viii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Figures xi
  • List of Tables xiii
  • NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS xx
  • 1: The Institutional Embeddedness of the Stratification Process - A Comparative Study of Qualifications and Occupations in Thirteen Countries 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Conclusion 36
  • Notes 44
  • 2: The Transition from School to Work in Australia 49
  • Introduction 49
  • Conclusion 69
  • Notes 70
  • 3: Education and Occupation in Britain 71
  • Introduction 71
  • Conclusion 96
  • Notes 100
  • 4: From Education to First Job: The French Case 103
  • 4: From Education to First Job 103
  • DATA APPENDIX 135
  • DATA APPENDIX 139
  • 5: Education and Labour-Market Entry in Germany 143
  • Introduction 143
  • Conclusion 182
  • Notes 186
  • 6: Investment in Education - Educational Qualifications and Class of Entry in the Republic of Ireland 189
  • Introduction 189
  • Conclusion 215
  • Notes 219
  • 7: Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Transition from School to Work in Israel 221
  • Introduction 221
  • Conclusion 247
  • Notes 250
  • 8: Occupational Returns to Education in Contemporary Italy 253
  • Introduction 253
  • Conclusion 279
  • Notes 284
  • 9: Educational Credentials and Labour-Market Entry Outcomes in Japan 287
  • Introduction 287
  • Conclusion 304
  • Notes 308
  • 10: From High School and College to Work in Japan - Meritocracy through Institutional and Semi-Institutional Linkages 311
  • Introduction 311
  • Conclusion 332
  • Notes 334
  • 11: Education and Early Occupation in the Netherlands around 1990 - Categorical and Continuous Scales and the Details of a Relationship 337
  • INTRODUCTION: SCALES AND DETAILS 337
  • Conclusion 364
  • Notes 366
  • 12: Qualifications and the Allocation Process of Young Men and Women in the Swedish Labour Market 369
  • Introduction 369
  • Conclusion 400
  • Notes 404
  • 13: The Transition from School to Work in Switzerland - Do Characteristics of the Educational System and Class Barriers Matter? 407
  • Introduction 407
  • Conclusion 432
  • Notes 440
  • 14: The Transition from School to Work in Taiwan 443
  • Introduction 443
  • Conclusion 466
  • Notes 469
  • 15: The Early Returns - The Transition from School to Work in the United States 471
  • Introduction 471
  • Conclusion 504
  • Notes 509
  • References 511
  • NAME INDEX 533
  • SUBJECT INDEX 538
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