themselves metaphorically. For these immigrant writers, the reversal and interplay of those dichotomies that contributed to a redefinition of modern Persian letters have become a vehicle to a transformation with interesting echoes of the changes taking place inside Iranian borders: "The two settings, Iran and Iranian habitations abroad, mirror each other at acute or oblique angles, mutually affecting each other's representations, setting off mutating variations" ( Fischer and Abedi255). The conditions that have created this synchronicity are not exactly the same in the two settings. Writers living in Iran respond to linguistic, social, political, and cultural challenges that the immigrant writers, who are themselves subject to other forces of contestation, experience only secondhand. Even for those immigrant writers who cling to memories of the past and relive them in their obsessive repetitions, simple oppositions of the past can remain unchallenged only at the risk of producing works that reach neither the immigrant nor the "home" communities. The similarities between patterns of transformation in the Iranian literary scene and the immigrant setting could stem from the fact that writers inside and outside Iran have inherited the same mechanisms for coming to terms with moments of transition and rupture. Or, returning once again to Sholevar Dead Reckoning, Iranian immigrant writers may have brought to America only what they were, both literary innovators and preservers of established tradition.
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