Design and Analysis of Single-Case Research

By Ronald D. Franklin; David B. Allison et al. | Go to book overview

2
Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Single-Case Research

Richard F. Ittenbach William F. Lawhead Educational Psychology Program and Department of Philosophy and Religion The University of Mississippi

Scientific research consists of a vast number of contributions throughout history. Each contribution to the broader fabric of science represents a blend of personalities and perspectives over time. Additionally, many individuals and movements are responsible for the principles and practices of what have now come to be known as research design. Two factors stand out as particularly important in the evolution of the design and analysis of all types of research: better methods for controlling the performance of variables of interest and improved mathematical modelling of behavioral phenomena. Yet, large-group research designs, designs for which most developments and issues have emanated, actually originated in the study of the individual.

Single-subject research, a subcategory of social science research, may well be the point of origin for all scientific research. As early as 2500 BC, politicians and mercantilists struggled with the notion of dividing human labor based on people's skills and abilities. More recently, single- subject research, in union with new developments in statistical methodology and computer technology, has been used to better understand the patterns of individuals' behaviors well beyond what was thought possible only a few decades ago.

The purpose of the present chapter is to lay the foundation for a more complete discussion of research designs in general and single-subject research designs in particular by tracing the evolution of scientific

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Design and Analysis of Single-Case Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • References x
  • Contributors xiii
  • List of Equations xix
  • 1: Introduction 1
  • Introduction 1
  • References 10
  • 2: Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Single-Case Research 13
  • References 39
  • 3: Measurement of Dependent Variables 41
  • References 84
  • APPENDIX: CONSTRUCTING CONFIDENCE INTERVALS FOR ICCS (FROM SHROUT & FLEISS, 1979) 90
  • 4: Treatment Integrity in Single-Subject Research 93
  • 5: Graphical Display and Visual Analysis1 119
  • Introduction 119
  • References 154
  • 6: Statistical Alternatives for Single-Case Designs 159
  • References 208
  • 7: Serial Dependency in Single-Case Time Series 215
  • Introduction 215
  • References 242
  • 8: Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research 245
  • Introduction 245
  • SUMMARY 273
  • References 273
  • 9: The Potentially Confounding Effects of Cyclicity: Identification, Prevention, and Control 279
  • References 328
  • Appendix 334
  • 10: Power, Sample Size Estimation, and Early Stopping Rules 335
  • Introduction 335
  • SUMMARY 367
  • References 368
  • Author Index 373
  • Subject Index 383
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