China in Transition: Communism, Capitalism, and Democracy

By Ronald M. Glassman | Go to book overview

Chapter 3
The Rise of the New Middle Classes in China: A Tumultuous Class History

Mao had pledged to build a public school and a clinic in each village district where each warlord's house stood. He kept his promise. A fairly extensive grade school system was established throughout the countryside and in the cities. Mao and the Communist Party also built a system of secondary schools and universities modeled after the Russian system. As with the Russian schools, the Chinese schools were academically excellent but ideologically loaded with Marxist- Leninist-Maoist propaganda.

No spirit of free inquiry characterized these schools and colleges. Those intellectuals who had begun their learning before the communist takeover were repressed and "reeducated" where they deviated from "socialist thinking." However, again as with the Russian schools, the scientific and technical curriculum was very good. By the late 1950s a steady stream of university-educated individuals began to emerge in China. As in Russia, the early university graduates were selectively absorbed into the Communist Party as political and economic functionaries. Therefore, the new middle class, as a class, did not yet exist as an independent entity, and it exerted little impact upon the society at large.

Mao and other members of the Communist Party, especially Chou En-lai, placed great emphasis upon the development and expansion of a class of university-educated Chinese who could lead the nation toward modernity. Chou, in a speech to the party's central committee, expressed both hopes and fears of the party about this new set of strata they were actively creating. "The overwhelming majority of intellectuals," he announced, "have become government workers in the cause of socialism and are already part of the working class."1

Notice this mental sleight of hand: by absorbing the new middle class into the party, this new class would become part of the vanguard of the working class. This was Chou's hope; and his only worry at the time (the mid-1950s)

-29-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
China in Transition: Communism, Capitalism, and Democracy
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 296

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.