Oldest Allies, Guarded Friends: The United States and France since 1940

By Charles G. Cogan | Go to book overview

soldier in charge of a military operation having nothing to do with their political destiny. But subsequently, in quite another tone, he addressed himself to the French nation. He urged that nation to "carry out his orders." He declared that "in the administration, everyone will continue to fulfill his functions unless contrary instructions are received"; that once France was liberated, "the French themselves would choose their representatives and their government." In short, he appeared to be taking charge of our country even though he was merely an Allied general entitled to command troops but not in the least qualified to intervene in the country's government. . . . In this factum, not a word of the French authority which for years had aroused and directed the war effort of our people and which had done Eisenhower the honor of placing under his command a great part of the French Army. 121

The end of the war in 1945 saw France less damaged materially than, for example, Poland, but more damaged on the psychological plane. As French Deputy Edouard Frédéric Dupont stated: "Among countries like Poland and Belgium, France suffered the least from the German occupation. And it was Marshal PV00E9tain who gained us that."122

For not having succeeded in surmounting its moral dilemma in 1940, France was, to borrow the phrase of François Furet, "yearning for expiation" (en mal d' expiation). Though Weygand refused to "dishonor" the French Army and instead put the blame on the politicians of the Third Republic, it was not surprising that the army--which was at the heart of this defeat and of this division of French society, which made impossible a "solution in unity" in 1940-- became the instrument of expiation in the postwar period.


NOTES
1.
Charles de Gaulle, Discours et Messages ( Geneva: Editions Edito-Service, 1970), 2: 92 (address at the Hôtel de Ville, Paris, August 25, 1944).
2.
Letter from President Franklin Roosevelt to Joseph Clark Baldwin of the House of Representatives, July 19, 1944, shortly after the visit of Charles de Gaulle to Washington. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library (FDRL), Official File (OF), Box 2, France 1944-45. De Gaulle learned of this letter afterward, when an anonymous person sent him a photocopy. Charles de Gaulle, The Complete War Memoirs of Charles de Gaulle, vol. 2, Unity, 1942- 1944, trans. Richard Howard ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964), 576.
3.
Excerpt of an editorial sent to President Roosevelt by New York lawyer James N. Gerard on June 15, 1944, with the note: "Enclosed is an excellent editorial from the Shreveport "Times" of June 12, '44 about that cussed de Gaulle." FDRL, President's Secretary's File (PSF), Box 31, France: de Gaulle, 1944-45.
4.
The New York Times Book Review, November 11, 1990, 58.
5.
De Gaulle, War Memoirs, 2: 545.
6.
Ibid.
7.
Allied Military Government in the Occupied Territories.
8.
Stanley Hoffmann, "The Man Who Would Be France," The New Republic, December 17, 1990, 33.

-49-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Oldest Allies, Guarded Friends: The United States and France since 1940
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Foreword vii
  • Preface xi
  • Note xii
  • Introduction 1
  • Notes 17
  • 2 - The Falling Out 19
  • Notes 49
  • 3 - The Turning Point 55
  • Notes 71
  • 4 - La Grande Nation, La Grande Armée1 75
  • Notes 95
  • 5 - The Reversal 99
  • Notes 117
  • 6 - The Multilateral Force: The Two Hegemons 121
  • Notes 146
  • 7 - Posthumous Coronation and Détente: The Year of Europe 151
  • Notes 172
  • 8 - Euro-Corps: Return of the Ambivalences 177
  • Notes 195
  • 9 - Epilogue: by Default of Enemies? 199
  • Notes 215
  • Selected Bibliography 219
  • Index 227
  • About the Author 235
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 242

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.