Not by Schools Alone: Sharing Responsibility for America's Education Reform

By Sandra A. Waddock | Go to book overview

process and deal with significant content issues as well, since they would force an evaluation of what gets taught along with how it is taught.

Many proposals for restructuring curriculum and pedagogy focus on what happens inside the school, assuming that the pressures that come from outside can be safely ignored. There is, of course, some evidence from the work of Comer and Sizer that good schools can be created even under the most difficult circumstances. 16 But without significant support and change in the operating policies and ways in which schools relate to external constituencies, success requires heroes of the sort represented by Jaime Escalante of Stand and Deliver fame. Since most people are not heroes, it would arguably be more prudent to create a system and a structure for schools that can work effectively whatever the external circumstances. This approach would mean that every school's structure would look different but could potentially be adapted to the needs of the local community. When external forces are understood, the possibilities for structuring will become more apparent since it is likely that principles for their reorganizing can be found.


NOTES
1.
P. M. Senge ( 1991), The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization ( New York. Doubleday).
2.
See Senge ( 1991). Chapter 5 and Appendices 1 and 2, in particular.
3.
See Senge ( 1991), Chapter 7, in particular.
4.
See Senge ( 1991), Appendix 2.
5.
See Senge ( 1991), Appendix 2.
6.
Frederick Taylor is considered the father of principles of scientific management.
7.
See Senge ( 1991). The subtitle of the book is, of course, The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization.
8.
J. Kozol does, of course, make this very point in his ( 1991) Savage Inequalities ( New York: Crown), but he is among the few mainstream writers to do so.
9.
See T. R. Sizer ( 1992), Horace's School: Redesigning the American High School ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company).
10.
See, e.g., S. B. Wolff and G. C. Leader ( 1993), Business and the Public Schools: The Potential for a Partnership Based on Total Quality Management ( Boston: Human Resources Policy Institute, Boston University).
11.
Sandra Byrne of the National Alliance of Business, Washington, D.C. has conducted an extensive study of schools implementing TQM systems. Personal communication.
12.
S. A. Waddock (forthcoming), Collaboration for Systemic Reform in Education: The Fourth Wave ( New York: The Conference Board).
13.
T. R. Sizer ( 1992) documents the process of change and what an excellent restructured school might look like from a curriculum and internal structure perspective, as well as the difficulties in achieving such changes, in his wonderful book. D. Perkins

-135-

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Not by Schools Alone: Sharing Responsibility for America's Education Reform
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Introduction 1
  • Note 5
  • Chapter 1 a Context of Change 7
  • Notes 24
  • Chapter 2: The Social Fabric of Education 29
  • Chapter 3 the Institutional Fabric of Education 49
  • Notes 73
  • Chapter 4 the Realities and Responsibilities of Education 77
  • Notes 93
  • Chapter 5 Not Alone: Outside in Thinking 95
  • Notes 111
  • Chapter 6 System Dynamics of School Failure 113
  • Notes 135
  • Chapter 7 Structure as Possibility 137
  • Chapter 8 Structure as Solution 161
  • Notes 175
  • Chapter 9 Networks and Schools 177
  • Notes 198
  • Chapter 10 Businesses and Other Employers Linked to Schools 199
  • Notes 215
  • Chapter 11 Conclusions 217
  • References 221
  • Index 231
  • About the Author 241
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