Against the Tide: Women Reformers in American Society

By Paul A. Cimbala; Randall M. Miller | Go to book overview

settlements from seeking reforms. By the 1940s most settlements were community-based social service agencies, more often extensions of the government than critics of society--if they ever had been, which of course most had not.

Jane Addams and her colleagues in the settlement movement did not see eye to eye on many policy issues regarding settlement houses, but because of the decentralized nature of the movement (it was twenty-two years old before it felt the need for a national organization) and Addams's belief in individual freedom, these disagreements remained mostly uncontested. Despite Addams's enormous personal appeal as a much-loved public figure, her influence on the directions taken by the settlement movement was not great. Her greatest reform was Hull House. As its cofounder and head resident, she gave herself and others the opportunity to help to change America.


NOTES
1.
Mary Sayles, "Settlement Workers and Their Work," Outlook 78 ( 1904): 311; Jane Addams to Alice Addams Haldeman, 23 February 1893, Jane Addams Papers, Jane Addams Peace Collection ( Swarthmore College); Paul Kellogg, "Twice Twenty Years at Hull-House," The Survey 64 ( 1930): 266.
2.
Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull-House ( New York, 1910), 85.
3.
This speech was later published as "The Objective Value of a Social Settlement," first in the Forum magazine (under a different title) and then in Henry C. Adams, ed., Philanthropy and Social Progress ( New York, 1893).
4.
Jane Addams, "A Function of the Social Settlement," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 13 ( 1899): 336.
5.
Ibid., 50.
6.
Ruth Hutchinson Crocker, Social Work and Social Order: The Settlement Movement in Two Industrial Cities, 1889-1930 ( Champaign-Urbana, Ill., 1992), 211, 222- 225.
7.
Harry P. Kraus, The Settlement House Movement in New York City, 1886-1914 ( New York, 1980), 31.
8.
Jane Addams, "The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements," in Adams, ed., Philanthropy and Social Progress, 24.
9.
Louise dekoven Bowen, Growing Up with a City ( New York, 1926), 88.
10.
Louise C. Wade, Graham Taylor: Pioneer for Social Justice, 1851-1938 ( Chicago, 1964), 150.
11.
Daniel Murphy, "Some Functions of a Settlement Resident," Annual Report of University Settlement Society, 1912 ( New York, 1912), 33.
12.
Allen F. Davis, Spearheads for Reform: The Social Settlements and the Progressive Movement, 1890-1914 ( New York, 1967), x.
13.
Jane Addams, "Neighborhood Improvement," in Proceedings of the 31st National Conference of Charities and Corrections ( New York, 1904), 457.
14.
Jane Addams, "Remarks," National Conference of Charities and Corrections, Proceedings of the 23rd National Conference ( Boston, 1897), 136.
15.
James Weber Linn, Jane Addams: A Biography ( New York, 1936), 387.
16.
Jane Addams, "A Modern Lear," repr. in Christopher Lasch, ed., The Social

-97-

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