Victims of Soviet Terror: The Story of the Memorial Movement

By Nanci Adler | Go to book overview

PART II
THE EMERGENCE AND EVOLUTION OF MEMORIAL

It is difficult to define the contours of Memorial, because of its unofficial origins and its multifaceted activities. What we find when we examine the history of Memorial is the development of the organization along various lines: as a historical-enlightenment society, as a human rights movement, as a social organization and as a political organization. It was the interaction and combination of all these forces that shaped the form and function of Memorial. A chronological examination of Memorial's history, with these themes in mind, may be the clearest way to understand how Memorial developed.

For purposes of discussion, it is useful to divide Memorial's course of development into three phases, which are described in the next three chapters. The first stage, 1987-1988, encompasses the signature campaign, the 70th anniversary of the revolution, the 19th Party Conference and the "Week of Conscience." The second period, 1988-1989, includes Memorial's struggle against official hindrance and the Founding Conference. This event, which established a charter, resolutions and basic moral principles, will be given special attention here because it is essential to understanding the philosopy of Memorial. In the third phase, the aftermath of the Founding Conference, 1989- 1990, the movement spread as local divisions emerged in cities all over the Soviet Union, a monument to the victims of totalitarianism was erected in Moscow, and Memorial became more involved in political issues.

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Victims of Soviet Terror: The Story of the Memorial Movement
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Notes xv
  • Preface xvii
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • Introduction 1
  • PART I - MEMORIAL: HISTORY AS MORAL IMPERATIVE 7
  • CHAPTER 1 - The Formation of the Soviet System 9
  • CHAPTER 2 - Stalinism: Inheritance and Legacy 31
  • CHAPTER 3 - The Rediscovery of Soviet History 41
  • PART II - THE EMERGENCE AND EVOLUTION OF MEMORIAL 49
  • CHAPTER 4 - 1987-1988: Gaining Support 51
  • CHAPTER 5 - 1988-1989: Toward the Founding Conference 69
  • CHAPTER 6 - 1989-1990: Memorial Branches Out 83
  • PART III - MEMORIAL ACTUALIZES ITSELF, HISTORY AS DISSIDENCE 103
  • CHAPTER 7 - Memorial in Action 105
  • CHAPTER 8 - The Politics of Memorial 123
  • Epilogue - "Today We Are Historians of Dissidence, and Not Dissidents" 133
  • Notes 138
  • Appendix A 139
  • Appendix B 141
  • Selected Bibliography 151
  • Index 153
  • About the Author 157
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