In their 1989 book entitled What Happened in That Time?, historians L. A. Gordon and E. V. Klopov conclude that between 1931 and 1936 no less than 4 to 5 million lives were lost as a result of hunger and repression (pp. 162-163), and in the second half of the 1930s through the beginning of the 1940s, as many as 4 million died by execution. The official historian, D. A. Volkogonov, estimates (based on inconclusive information) that in the years 1937-1939 alone, 3.5 to 4 million were "repressed" ( Oktyabr, no. 12, 1988, p. 129); V. Danilov attributes as many as 6 to 7 million deaths between 1931 and 1933 to famine alone ( "Fenomen pervykh pyatiletok," Gorizont, no. 5, 1988, p. 35). V. V. Tsaplin, basing his analysis on documents from the State Central Economic Administration, arrived at an (inconclusive) total of 7.9 million people who died of hunger or in prisons and camps between the years 1927 and 1938, while another 2 million left the Soviet Union ( "Statistika zhertv stalinizima v 30-egg.," Voprosi Istorii, no. 4, 1989, pp. 175-181). V. Chistyakovoy asserts that in the year 1933 as many as 5 million people died of hunger and illness. Furthermore, he estimates that between 1936 and 1950 up to 12 million prisoners were being held in camps annually, in total 12 million died. This latter figure includes those who were executed as well as victims of postwar repression. Finally, he concludes that 20 million Soviet citizens became victims in the 1930s ( V. Chistyakovoy, Neva, no. 10, 1988, pp. 154, 158). In Let History Judge, Roy Medvedev asserts that between 1937 and 1938 one thousand people were executed daily in Moscow alone (Kotlovan, Spetsialny Vypusk, Khibinskogo otdeleniya obshchestva"Memorial").