Constructionism in Practice: Designing, Thinking, and Learning in a Digital World

By Yasmin Kafai; Mitchel Resnick | Go to book overview

The Shadow Box

Reith et al. ( 1989) have designed yet another variation of the classical perspective-taking experiment that is worth mentioning. In this case, none of the participants involved knows what the object actually looks like. Each has a partial view in the form of a shadow projection and needs to exchange information with others to figure out the shape of the "hidden object." The setting is a big box containing a 3-D object. The vertical sides of the box are semiopaque screens showing four shadow projections of the object. A person is seated in front of each window. No movement is allowed around the display. This experiment provides an excellent metaphor for what actually happens in any other perspective-taking situation. Objects are never visible. They are always "hidden" in the sense that they do not present all their faces at once. As in the shadow-box task, people necessarily reconstruct objects, for themselves and with others. They do so by keeping hold of partial presentations as seen from specific station points, and by imposing stabilities upon reliable changes in presentations, as noticed through moving around in consistent ways.


CONCLUSION

The most important contribution of the "situated cognition" approach is that it has brought back subjectivity, standpoint, and context to the center of discussions about knowledge and learning. In stressing the deeply personal and rooted nature of what we know and how we come to know, authors have challenged the view prevalent among developmentalists that removed analytical modes of thought are necessarily more advanced, and that cognitive growth is a smooth progression from concrete to abstract, from fusion to separation, from egocentrism to decentration.

On the other hand, we know from Piaget, Kegan, and others ( Winnicott, 1971) that the ability to reach deeper understanding also requires moments of separation. As Kegan eloquently put it, cognitive growth emerges as a result of people's repeated attempts to solve the unresolvable tension between getting embedded and emerging from embeddedness ( Kegan, 1982). Without connection people cannot grow, yet without separation they cannot relate. People need to get immersed in situations, but there also comes a time when they want to step out. They detach themselves by projecting their experience. They "objectify" it and they address it "as if " it were not theirs. They recast what has happened to them to make it more tangible. They become their own observers, narrators, and critics. Then, again, they newly reengage their previously "objectified" experience. They dive back into it and try once more to gain intimacy. Both "diving in" and "stepping out" are equally needed to reach deeper understanding.

Research on perspective-taking has illustrated how people drift in and out of their viewpoints, and how this drifting leads to the construction of a God's-eye-

-32-

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Constructionism in Practice: Designing, Thinking, and Learning in a Digital World
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Contributors xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Acknowledgments 8
  • Part I - Perspectives in Constructionism 8a
  • 1 - A Word for Learning 9
  • References 24
  • 2 - Perspective-Taking and Object Construction 25
  • Conclusion 32
  • Acknowledgments 34
  • References 34
  • 3 - Elementary School Children's Images of Science 37
  • Introduction 37
  • Conclusions 62
  • Acknowledgments 64
  • Acknowledgments 65
  • Appendix B - Image of Science Interview Guideline 65
  • Part II - Learning Through Design 70a
  • 4 - Learning Design by Making Games Children's Development of Design Strategies in the Creation of a Complex Computational Artifact 71
  • Conclusion 93
  • Acknowledgments 94
  • References 94
  • 5 - Electronic Play Worlds 97
  • Conclusions 119
  • Acknowledgments 121
  • References 121
  • 6 - The Art of Design 125
  • Foreword 125
  • References 158
  • 7 - Building and Learning with Programmable Bricks 161
  • Introduction 161
  • References 172
  • Part III - Learning in Communities *
  • 8 - Social Constructionism and the Inner City Designing Environments for Social Development and Urban Renewal 175
  • Introduction 175
  • Acknowledgments 204
  • Appendix - Statistical Data About the Four Corners Neighborhood 204
  • References 205
  • 9 - The MediaMOO Project Constructionism and Professional Community 207
  • Conclusion - Constructionism and Virtual Reality 220
  • Acknowledgments 221
  • References 221
  • 10 - A Community of Designers Learning Through Exchanging Questions and Answers 223
  • Introduction 223
  • References 239
  • 11 - They Have Their Own Thoughts 241
  • Introduction 241
  • Conclusion 251
  • Acknowledgments 252
  • References 253
  • Part IV - Learning About Systems 254a
  • 12 - New Paradigms for Computing, New Paradigms for Thinking 255
  • Introduction 255
  • Acknowledgments 266
  • References 267
  • 13 - Making Sense of Probability Through Paradox and Programming A Case Study in a Connected Mathematics Framework 269
  • Introduction 269
  • Concluding Remarks 290
  • Acknowledgments 292
  • References 293
  • 14 - Ideal and Real Systems 297
  • Introduction 297
  • Analysis and Conclusions 318
  • Acknowledgments 322
  • References 322
  • Author Index 323
  • Subject Index 329
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