Fred H. Borgen Iowa State University
Every discovery is made more than once and none is made all at once.
-- Sigmund Freud ( 1920/ 1977, p. 257)
The focus of this chapter is innovation in interest measurement. A brief historical sketch is provided of landmark innovations in the major inventories covered in the preceding chapters. Separate chapters have preceded on each of the "Big Three" interest inventories--those generated by the work of Strong ( 1927), Kuder ( 1966), and Holland ( 1958, 1977, 1979). In this chapter specific attention is directed to newer interest inventories and how they have built upon--or gone beyond--the Big Three inventories. The focus is on conceptual and psychometric change and the implications of such change for counseling use. This is not intended to be an explicit critique of instruments as one might find in Buros' ( 1978, p. xxxv) "frankly critical" reviews, or invidious comparisons of instruments. The focus is more on the state of the art in interest measurement, its evolution, and underlying theoretical, psychometric, and counseling issues. My concerns are with the way different inventories have handled issues in interest measurement, and with the way some of the newer inventories reflect innovative approaches or a continuation of established traditions.
From one perspective, the history of interest measurement shows a remarkably sustained continuity. The benchmark methods of today have roots directly to Strong ( 1927) early work, showing that the interests of people in different