Elitism, Populism, and European Politics

By Jack E. S. Hayward | Go to book overview

2
'Losing Touch' in a Democracy: Demands versus Needs

ROBERT E. LANE

Although it may be that journalistic, bureaucratic, and academic élites have 'lost touch with their publics', I will focus on elected élites. For what purpose would elected élites 'keep in touch' with their publics? To be re-elected, of course. But retaining office by elected élites has not, until very recently, been a problem in Europe, and even in the USA the current problem is only among executives and not the legislators of which we are speaking. This volume reveals a concern for something else: in the popular phrase, for the public's alienation, in academic language, for 'the confidence gap', between élites and their publics. 1 (Incidentally, if lack of confidence in parliaments is an indication of 'losing touch', we should observe that in the 1981-90 period there was no increase in 'losing touch' in the nine European countries studied by the European Values Study. 2) In the final analysis, however, our concern is and should be with the effects of 'losing touch' on the public welfare. What social consequences flow from the alleged distance between elected élites and their publics?

The gravity of these consequences depends on what we mean by 'keeping in touch'. I treat this phrase here as dealing with political representation of two familiar kinds: the delegate theory, which emphasizes representatives' responsiveness to public demands, and the trustee theory, emphasizing responses to public needs. The distinction between demands and needs is crucial. It is the chopping-block for arguments about the purposes of representation, the fulcrum for theories of democracy, and the lever to pry open the meaning of 'losing

____________________
I am greatly indebted to my colleague Robert Dahl who saved me from many errors but could not prevent me from making many others. He is absolved from responsibility for the path I have chosen and thanked for showing me the minefields in the terrain I tread. I also wish to thank Rudolph Premfors, a visitor to Yale from the University of Stockholm, for his helpful advice on the saving values of communication and deliberation.

-33-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Elitism, Populism, and European Politics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Tables ix
  • LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS x
  • Introduction Mediocre Élites Elected by Mediocre Peoples 1
  • Note 9
  • 1: The Populist Challenge to Élitist Democracy in Europe 10
  • Notes 30
  • 2 - 'Losing Touch' in a Democracy: Demands Versus Needs 33
  • Notes 60
  • 3: Freedom from the Press 67
  • Notes 86
  • 4: From Representative to Responsive Government? 88
  • Notes 99
  • 5: The European Union, the Political Class, and the People 101
  • Notes 120
  • 6: Political Parties and the Public Accountability of Leaders 121
  • Notes 141
  • 7: Élite-Mass Linkages in Europe: Legitimacy Crisis or Party Crisis? 143
  • Notes 160
  • 8: Organized Interests as Intermediaries 164
  • Notes 186
  • 9: Mediating between the Powerless and the Powerful 190
  • Notes 202
  • 10: Public Demands and Economic Constraints: All Italians Now? 203
  • Notes 219
  • 11: The Fluctuating Rationale of Monetary Union 220
  • 4: Conclusion 235
  • Notes 237
  • 12: Has Government by Committee Lost the Public's Confidence? 238
  • Notes 249
  • Conclusion Has European Unification by Stealth a Future? 252
  • Notes 257
  • Index 259
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 272

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.