Elitism, Populism, and European Politics

By Jack E. S. Hayward | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
For the parliamentary votes, see European Law Review, 18 ( June 1993), 229 ff.
2.
Ronald Inglehart and Karlheinz Reif, "'Analysing Trends in West European Opinion: The Role of the Eurobarometer Surveys'", in Karlheinz Reif and Ronald Inglehart (eds.), Eurobarometer ( London: Macmillan, 1991).
3.
Ibid. 10, 11.
4.
For a brief account of the new co-operation procedure introduced by the Single European Act of 1986 and its effects, see Vernon Bogdanor, "'Direct Elections, Representative Democracy and European Integration'", Electoral Studies, 8 ( 1989), 205-16.
5.
See, Karlheinz Reif, "'National Electoral Cycles and European Elections 1979. and 1984'", Electoral Studies, 3 ( 1984), 244-55, and Reif, "'Ten Second-Order National Elections'", in Reif (ed.), Ten European Elections ( Aldershot: Gower, 1985).
6.
Reif, "'Ten Second-Order National Elections'", 9.
7.
Torben Worre, "'The Danish Euro-Party System'", Scandinavian Political Studies, 10 ( 1987), 79-95, and "'Denmark'", Electoral Studies, 8 ( 1989), 237- 45.
8.
Reif, "'National Electoral Cycles and European Elections 1979 and 1984'", 253.
9.
Arend Lijphart, "'Political Parties: Ideologies and Programs'", in David Butler, Howard R. Penniman, and Austin Ranney (eds.), Democracy at the Polls: A Comparative Study of Competitive National Elections ( Washington: AEI, 1981).
10.
Ibid. 41.
11.
Ibid. 49.
12.
Ibid. 50.
13.
Quoted in Agence Europe, 26 Mar. 1989.
14.
Giovanni Sartori, Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis, pt. 1 ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976).
15.
De Gaulle's proposal for a referendum was in fact dropped in the final version of the Plan, since the Germans objected, their Constitution containing no provision for a referendum. Roger Massip, De Gaulle et L'Europe ( Paris: Flammarion, 1963), 70.

-120-

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Elitism, Populism, and European Politics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Tables ix
  • LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS x
  • Introduction Mediocre Élites Elected by Mediocre Peoples 1
  • Note 9
  • 1: The Populist Challenge to Élitist Democracy in Europe 10
  • Notes 30
  • 2 - 'Losing Touch' in a Democracy: Demands Versus Needs 33
  • Notes 60
  • 3: Freedom from the Press 67
  • Notes 86
  • 4: From Representative to Responsive Government? 88
  • Notes 99
  • 5: The European Union, the Political Class, and the People 101
  • Notes 120
  • 6: Political Parties and the Public Accountability of Leaders 121
  • Notes 141
  • 7: Élite-Mass Linkages in Europe: Legitimacy Crisis or Party Crisis? 143
  • Notes 160
  • 8: Organized Interests as Intermediaries 164
  • Notes 186
  • 9: Mediating between the Powerless and the Powerful 190
  • Notes 202
  • 10: Public Demands and Economic Constraints: All Italians Now? 203
  • Notes 219
  • 11: The Fluctuating Rationale of Monetary Union 220
  • 4: Conclusion 235
  • Notes 237
  • 12: Has Government by Committee Lost the Public's Confidence? 238
  • Notes 249
  • Conclusion Has European Unification by Stealth a Future? 252
  • Notes 257
  • Index 259
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