potential members want. It also depends upon the general market
'image' of the organization. Just as large firms need to produce the
right product, they also make great efforts to create a favourable 'image'
for themselves (oil companies being a classic example). Party leaders
are not stupid. We might expect them to develop organizational responses
to market challenge. This might mean a further extension of state funding or even compulsory voting. In the short term it is likely to mean the
adoption of new marketing techniques bringing parties, interest groups,
and social movements closer together in terms of organizational design.
We may conclude by suggesting that the intensity of group activity is
such that, in many societies, there is little chance of élites losing touch
with their peoples. Modern politics is about organization. Modern citizens
have demonstrated that they know how to organize.
Stein Rokkan, Citizens, Elections, Parties ( Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1970).
Russell Dalton, Citizen Politics in Western Democracies ( Chatham, NJ: Chatham House, 1988), 41.
Max Kaase and
Alan Marsh, "'Political Action Repertory: Changes over
Time and a New Typology'", in
Samuel H. Barnes and
M. Kaase (eds.), Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies ( Beverly
Hills, Calif: Sage), 137.
4. Ibid. 149; cf. Gabriel A. Almond and
Sidney Verba, The Civic Culture:
Political Attitudes and Democracy ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1963). 5.
M. Lal Goel and
David Horton Smith, "'Political Activities'", in
David Horton Smith
Jacqueline Macaulay, and Associates (eds.), Participation in Social
and Political Activities ( San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 1980), 76.
Johan P. Olsen, Organised Democracy: Political Institutions in a Welfare
State: The Case of Norway ( Oslo: Univertitetsforlaget, 1983).
Jack L. Walker, "'The Origins and Maintenance of Interest Groups in
America'", American Political Science Review, 77 ( 1983), 403.
Kent Weaver and
Bert A. Rockman, Do Institutions Matter? Government
Capabilities in the US and Abroad ( Washington: Brookings Institution, 1993).
Olsen, Organised Democracy, 7.
Stein Rokkan, "'Numerical Democracy and Corporate Pluralism'" in
Robert A. Dahl
, Political Opposition in Western Democracies ( New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1966), 107.
Martin Heisler and
Robert Kvavik, "'Patterns of European Politics: The
European Polity Model'", in
M. Heisler (ed.), Politics in Europe: Structures and Processes in Some Post-industrial Societies
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Elitism, Populism, and European Politics.
Contributors: Jack E. S. Hayward - Editor.
Publisher: Clarendon Press.
Place of publication: Oxford.
Publication year: 1996.
Page number: 186.
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