Council of Ministers and its substructure of committees, is the only
reconciliation possible. But in the wake of the Danish and French post-
Maastricht referendums, and the surge of opposition within Germany to
the idea of a common currency, it is hard to imagine how any national
government within the European Union (as it has now become) could
persuade its voters to accept such a transfer of symbolic loyalties. The
answer of the 'Eurosceptics' and nationalists in different member
countries is to return essential decisions to national government, or at
least to resist the transfer of any further authority. Yet the continuing
integration of European economies and societies--and the decreasing
viability of national defence and border controls--makes it impossible
for national administrations to imagine how to reverse the process.
How then otherwise to rebuild public confidence in a system of shared
government which publics do not understand, which is unavoidably
both highly technical and extremely complex, and which is managed by
officials for whom publics have on other grounds less and less respect?
That has become the central dilemma for those within the institutions
of the European Union and those within national governments alike.
Enlargement of the EU to the rich countries of EFTA, and thereafter
to the poorer countries of East-Central Europe, can only make that
dilemma more acute.
Jean Monnet, Mémoires ( Paris: Fayard, 1976), chs. 6 and 7.
Official Report of Debates, 21 Oct. 1955; cited in Miriam Camps, Britain
and the European Community 1955-1963 ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964), 41.
This argument is made most strongly by
Alan Milward in The European
Rescue of the Nation State ( London: Routledge, 1992), chs. 4 and 5. Milward, however, underplays both the importance of the American role in
pushing West European governments together and (in his ch. 6) the extent
to which the language and rhetoric in which national political leaders
presented their arguments shaped their perceptions of national interest.
William Wallace, "'Rescue or Retreat: The Nation State in Western Europe
1945-1993'", Political Studies, special issue: The Crisis of the Nation State, 42 ( 1994) 52-76, explores these questions further.
Walter Hallstein, Europe in the Making ( London: Allen & Unwin, 1972), 60.
Walter Hallstein, United Europe: Challenge and Opportunity ( Cambridge,
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Elitism, Populism, and European Politics.
Contributors: Jack E. S. Hayward - Editor.
Publisher: Clarendon Press.
Place of publication: Oxford.
Publication year: 1996.
Page number: 249.
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