duction of "works for hire." Ownership of copyrights increasingly rests with the
capitalists who have the machinery and capital to manufacture and distribute
Second, there has always been a tension between the monopolistic character of
intellectual property and its normative goal of enhancing the flow of information
and ideas. Copyright seeks to restrict the use of a work to those willing and able
to pay for it. This exclusivity can have the opposite result than that intended by
the founders of the system and may exacerbate the gaps between the informationrich and the information-poor. The oligopolistic structure of the communications system contributes further to the widening of these gaps. The incorporation
of new communications technologies into this oligopolistic structure have undermined their potential to bring about an increase in the range and forms of intellectual and artistic creativity. In sum, their potential to significantly enhance
participation in the communications system has been thwarted. These problems
are rooted in the political-economic structure of communications, as the following chapters demonstrate.
Denis McQuail, Mass Communication Theory: An Introduction (3rd ed.), London:
Sage, 1994, p. 83.
Anthony Giddens, "The Orthodox Consensus and the Emerging Synthesis", in
et al. (eds.), Rethinking Communication, Volume 1: Paradigm Issues, Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1989, pp. 53-65.
Oscar Gandy, "The Political Economy Approach: A Critical Challenge", Journal of
Media Economics, 5:2, 1992, pp. 23-42.
Graham Murdock, "Critical Inquiry and Audience Activity", in
B. Dervin et al. (eds.), Rethinking Communication, Volume 2: Paradigm Exemplars, Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1989,
pp. 226-249, p. 227.
Patrick Parsons, "Defining Cable Television: Structuration
and Public Policy", Journal of Communication, 39:2, 1989, pp. 10-26.
Anthony Giddens, The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1984, pp. 25-28.
Anthony Giddens, Central Problems in Social Theory, Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1979;
Anthony Giddens, "Action, Subjectivity, and the Constitution of
Meaning", Social Research, 53:3, 1986, pp. 529-545.
Anthony Giddens, New Rules of Sociological Method, London: Hutchinson, 1976, p. 161.
Murdock, "Critical Inquiry", p. 228.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Copyrighting Culture:The Political Economy of Intellectual Property.
Contributors: Ronald V. Bettig - Author.
Publisher: Westview Press.
Place of publication: Boulder, CO.
Publication year: 1996.
Page number: 8.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may
not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.