Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi

By Howard Gardner | Go to book overview

10
Creativity across the Domains

In the preceding chapters, I have related the stories of seven remarkable human beings, each of whom made an indelible mark in one or more domains while also contributing uniquely to the shape of the modern era. Their stories are, I trust, of interest in their own right. Yet, given my focus on the conceptualization of creativity, I need to step back and discuss which lessons hold for the study of creativity in general.


Revisiting the Organizing Framework

In chapter 2, I introduced a framework for treating the complex issues of creativity. Explicitly developmental, that framework features a concern with the creators' childhoods, as related to their adult creativity; an interest in phases of development across the fife span; and a focus on the finer-grained steps that characterize moments of breakthrough. I posited a dynamic that appears to characterize all creative activity: an ongoing dialectic among talented individuals, domains of expertise, and fields charged with judging the quality of creations. According to my formulation, this dynamic is often characterized by various kinds of tensions and asynchronies: provided that the asynchronies are not overwhelming, they should prove conducive to the fostering of creative individuals, processes, and products. Finally, I suggested a set of guiding themes, most of which provided background for the study, but two of which emerged, unexpectedly, from the study itself

That framework has now been put to work, implicitly in the case studies and more explicitly in the three interludes. In this concluding chapter, I examine explicitly a number, but certainly not all, of the issues raised thus far. I touch on the major questions that motivated the study, providing,

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Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen through the Lives of Freud, Einstein, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham, and Gandhi
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Preface xi
  • Part I - Introduction 1
  • 1 - Chance Encounters in Wartime Zurich 3
  • 2 - Approaches to Creativity 19
  • Part II - The Creators of the Modern Era 47
  • 3 - Sigmund Freud: Alone with the World 49
  • 4 - Albert Einstein: The Perennial Child 87
  • 5 - Pablo Picasso: Prodigiousness and Beyond 137
  • 6 - Igor Stravinsky: The Poetics and Politics of Music 187
  • 7 - T. S. Eliot: The Marginal Master 227
  • 8 - Martha Graham: Discovering the Dance of America 265
  • 9 - Mahatma Gandhi: A Hold upon Others 311
  • Part III - Conclusion 357
  • 10 - Creativity across the Domains 359
  • Epilogue: - The Modern Era and Beyond 391
  • Notes 407
  • Bibliography 435
  • Name Index 451
  • Subject Index 458
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