For histories of Argentina, there are many to consult. During this time period, see David Rock, Argentina 1516-1987: From Spanish Colonization to Alfonsin ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), or James R. Scobie, Argentina: A City and a
Nation, 2nd ed. ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971).
See Rock, Argentina, pp. 189-90.
See Rock, Argentina, p. 213.
Cristian Buckrucker, Nacionalismo y Peronismo ( Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, 1987), p. 125.
Robert Potash, "International regulations of the G.O.U.", in Perón y el G.O.U.:
Los documentos de una logia secreta ( Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, 1984), p. 78.
Alain Rouquié, Poder Militar y Sociedad Política en la Argentina, 2 vol. ( Buenos
Aires: Editores Emece, 1982).
This law was later dismissed in 1955, when justicialismo fell, and reinstated with
difficulty only during the liberal government of Raúl Alfonsín ( 1983-1989). The 1954
law was followed by one that allowed the installation of brothels. On 20 March 1955,
the government ordered a decrease in the number of national holidays. Several traditional
religious holidays became workdays. In a society constitutionally Catholic, with the
Church taking a considerable role in politics, the situation led to Perón's fall. On May
11, the Senate revoked religious education and canceled tax exemption for religious
institutions and their dependencies. The last was a blow to church finances. To augment
this legislation, the government approved a request for constitutional reform aimed at
the separation of church and state. Unification of the two was supported economically
and mandated in the 1953 constitution. Finally, more than fifty priests were incarcerated
under the accusation of threatening the government, and two priests were expelled from
Benjamín Rattenbach, "El Telon", Revista Militar, 633 ( September-October 1955): 6.
"Between January 1958 and December 1962, of 60 articles published by the Escuela Superior de Guerra's magazine, 16 refer to the subversive war, and 7 of those
were written by French authors. Be it translations from specialized French magazines or
essays written purposely by French military advisors, the Indochina and Algeria experiences, and the techniques of psychological war, are found frequently in the table of
contents of the Revista Militar, or in the more austere Revista de la Escuela Superior de
Guerra." ( Rouquié, Poder Militar, vol. 2, p. 158).
Rouquié, Poder Militar, vol. 2, p. 230.
"Act of destitution of President Arturo Illia", in
Marcelo Cavarrozi, Autoritarismo
y Democracia ( 1955- 1983) ( Buenos Aires: CEAL, 1983), p. 107.
Héctor Campora before the Legislative Assembly on 25 May 1973. See VictoriaItacovitz