The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview

Finally, should Fidel Castro be cornered by his colossal enemy, the United States, perceiving himself to be in a position of strategic inferiority, he could utilize the military and its resources to resort to extreme measures. Castro tried to persuade the Soviets to launch a preemptive nuclear strike against the United States during the Cuban missile crisis, and testimony by Rafael del Pino indicates that the Cubans considered bombing a U.S. nuclear power plant during the Grenada crisis. Such suicidal measures would be consistent with Cuba's tradition of martyrdom; given Castro's propensity for extremism, such a final military showdown should not be ruled out.


NOTES

The author would like to express appreciation to the School of Social Sciences at San José State University for providing research grant support for this chapter.

1.
See reference to Hugh Thomas, The Cuban Revolution ( New York: Harper and Row, 1977), in Damian J. Fernande, "Historical Background, Achievements, Failures and Prospects", in Jaime Suchlicki, ed., The Cuban Military under Castro ( Miami: North-South Center University of Miami Press, 1989), pp. 6-7.
2.
Marta San Martin and Ramon L. Bonachea, "The Military Dimension of the Cuban Revolution", in Irving Louis Horowitz, ed., Cuban Communism ( New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1982), p. 539.
3.
Statistical Abstract of Latin America ( Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles, 1992); The Military Balance ( London: International Institute of Strategic Studies, 1992); The World Fact Book ( Washington: Central Intelligence Agency, 1992).
4.
Statistical Abstract of Latin America, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Annual Summary ( London: Oxford University Press); World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfer ( Washington: U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency).
6.
For discussion of the formation of the Communist Party in Cuba (PCC), see Edward Gonzalez, Cuba under Castro: The Limits of Charisma ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974), pp. 102-4.
7.
Richard F. Staar, ed., Yearbook on International Communist Affairs (Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press) and The World Fact Book.
8.
Louis A. Perez Jr., Army Politics in Cuba 1898-1958 ( Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1976), p. 266.
9.
Seventy-two members of the one-hundred-man Central Committee of the PCC held military titles. See Gonzalez, Cuba Under Castro, p. 104.
10.
For discussion of several specific instances of civil-military conflict in Cuba, see Jorge I. Dominguez, Cuba, Order and Revolution ( Boston: Harvard University Press, 1978) and "The Cuban Army", in Johnathan R. Adelman, ed., Communist Armies in Politics ( Boulder: Westview Press, 1982).
11.
See William M. Leogrande, "A Bureaucratic Approach to Civil-Military Relations in Communist Political Systems: The Case of Cuba", and Irving Louis Horowitz, "Military Outcomes of the Cuban Revolution", in Horowitz, ed., Cuban Communism.
12.
Horowitz, "Military Outcomes", in Horowitz, ed., Cuban Communism, p. 592;

-84-

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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