The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview
New Conscientious Objection: From Sacred to Secular Resistance ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 106-113.
51.
Compiled and calculated from Johansen, Danish Historical Statistics, pp. 336, 356, and 362ff, for the period 1820- 1955/56; and Samfundsstatistik 1993, p. 80, for 1970-91.
52.
The figures show investment expenditures compared to all defense working expenses. See Johansen, Danish Historical Statistics, pp. 336, 358, 362; Forsvarskommandoen , Role of the Armed Forces, p. 90; Samfundsstatistik 1993, p. 80; Rigsrevisionen, Beretning; Forsvarsministerens Rådgivnings-og Analyse Gruppe, Fremtidige konflikttyper og konsekvenser for forsvaret (Future types of conflicts and their consequences for the armed forces) ( København: n.p., 1994), p. 87.
53.
See Rigsrevisionen, Beretning, p. 25, for the army.
54.
After World War II, the first Gallup survey on defense issues was on military expenditures held in 1950, Gallup survey no. 1950. 23.
55.
See Nikolaj Petersen, "Sikkerhedspolitik og indenrigspolitik folhekingsralges den 10 Maj 1988 (Security policy and domestic policy: The parliamentary election of May 10, 1988)", Dansk indenrigspolitik Årbog 1988 (Danish foreign policy yearbook 1988), p. 48.
56.
See Forsvarets Center for Lederskab, Befolkningens forsvarsvilje maj 75--apr 94 (The defense will of the population May 1975-Oct 1990) ( København: n.p., 1994), p. 2. In fact, eight different questions are asked in each survey. The answers are then combined and calculated so that the most defense-negative person scores zero and the most defensepositive person scores ten.
57.
See Forsvarets Center for Lederskab, publications 1979, no. 80; 1983, no. 99; 1985, no. 108; 1987, no. 113; 1989, no. 122; and Befolkningens forsvarsvilje, 1994. The "do not knows" are excluded in surveys from 1980 to 1992.
58.
See Petersen, "Defense in Danish Public Opinion", 1976, p. 25, who found the opposite to be true some years ago: "The Danish population is not very positive against the military as a population."
59.
The Danish Home Guard consists of seventy thousand volunteer male and female soldiers, only lightly armed and unpaid but nevertheless ready to defend their community and showing it by participating in military exercises, current assistance to the armed forces, and the like.
60.
The following data on the Danish officer corps are based on Sørensen, Sådan skal Danmark; see "English summary," pp. 349-57, in particular.
61.
See Henning Sørensen, "New Perspectives on the Military Profession: The I/O Model and Esprit de Corps Reevaluated", in Armed Forces and Society 20, no. 4 ( 1994).
62.
See Clemmesen, Værnskulturerne og forsvarspolitikken.
63.
See, among others, Larsen, Defense and the League of Nations, p. 447; or Clemmesen ; or Rahbek, "Danish military policy".

REFERENCES

Bjerg Hans Christian. "Forsvarskommissioner i Danmark gennem 125 år (Defense committees in Denmark in 125 years)". In Henning Sørensen, ed., Forsvar under forandring, 7-17. København: Samfundslitterartur, 1991.

-105-

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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