membership in violent groups is punishable by death. Army generals who served
in these tribunals have been targeted for assassination by the militants.47 Moreover, the media gave wide coverage to Mubarak's visits to the military in 1994
and his denunciation of terrorism in his address to the officers; the latter responded that state power has "sharp teeth" to be used against the "terrorists
who aim at destabilizing Egypt."48 The military's role during this critical juncture may prove to be a major determinant of the direction of Egyptian politics
in the next decade.
On comparing the cases of Egypt and Turkey see Mostafa Kamel El-Sayyid, "The
Role of Leadership in the Civilianization Process of Reform Oriented Military Regimes",
(master's thesis, University of California, 1971); and Richard H. Dekmejian, "Egypt and
Turkey: The Military in the Background", in
Roman Kolkowicz and
A. Korbonski, eds., Soldiers, Peasants and Bureaucrats ( London, Allen and Unwin, 1982), 28-51.
Ibrahim A. Karawan, "Egypt's Defense Policy", in
Stephanie Neumann, ed., Defense Planning in Less-Industrialized States ( Lexington: D. C. Heath and Co., 1984), p. 150.
Dekmejian, "Egypt and Turkey", p. 33.
Aliezer Beeri, Army Officers in Arab Society and Politics ( New York: Praeger, 1970), pp. 28-29; Shahrough Akhavi, "Egypt's Neo-Patrimonial Elite", in
, ed., Political Elites and Political Development in the Middle East ( Cambridge: Schenkman, 1975), pp. 85-89; Richard H. Dekmejian, Egypt under Nasir ( Albany: State
University of New York, 1971), pp. 172-74; and Anwar Abd al-Malik, Misr Mujtama'
Jadid Yabnih al-'Askariyun (Egypt a new society being built by the military) ( Beirut: Dar al-Tali'ah, 1964).
See Ahmad Hamrush, Misr wa al-'Askariyun (Egypt and the Military) ( Cairo: Maktabat Madbuli, 1983), chapter 5; and
Robert Springborg, "Patterns of Association
in the Egyptian Political Elite",in George Lenczowski, ed., Political Elites in the Middle
East ( Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1975), p. 93.
Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt's Liberation: The Philosophy of the Revolution
( Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1955), p. 23; P. J. Vatikiotis, Nasser and His
Generation ( London: Croom Helm, 1978), chapter 5; and Ibrahim Karawan, "Egypt's
Defense Policy: Who Makes What? How? and When?" (paper presented to the Columbia
University Workshop on Defense Policy-making in Less-Industrialized States, New York
City, April 16, 1982).
See Morris Janowitz, Military Institutions and Coercion in the Developing Nations
( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977).
See P. J. Vatikiotis, Nasser and His Generation, chapters 3-4.
See Joel Migdal, Strong Societies and Weak States (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), chapter 5.
Tariq al-Bishri, al-Dimuqratiyah wa Nizam 23 Yulyu (Democracy and the Regime
of 23rd of July) ( Cairo: Dar al-Hillal, 1991), chapter 3.
Ali Eddin Hillal, al-Nizam al-Siyasi al-Masri wa Tahadeyat al-Thamaninat (The
Egyptian political system and the challenges of the 1980s) ( Cairo: Maktabat Nahdat al-
Sharq, 1986), p. 18.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The Political Role of the Military:An International Handbook.
Contributors: Constantine P. Danopoulos - Editor, Cynthia Watson - Editor.
Publisher: Greenwood Press.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1996.
Page number: 118.
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