The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview
39.
General Ahmad Fakhr, "al-Ahdaf al-lstratijiyah li al-'Askariyah al-Misriyah (Strategic objectives of the Egyptian military)", al-Jumhuriyah, 20 January 1985. See also General Ibrahim Shakib, Shukran Ayuha al-Sadaha (Thank You, Gentlemen). al- Ahali, 7 November 1984.
40.
See statement of leftist party on this under the title "al-Dimuqratiyahfi Khatar (Endangered democracy)", al-Ahali, 13 August 1986.
41
.See Midhat al-Zahid critical article in "al-Ahali", 6 August 1986. One of AbuGhazallah's leftist critics referred to him as the "bright star," which was the name given to Egyptian-American joint exercises; see Sa'id Isma'il Ali, "Hadha al-Najm al-Sati (This bright star)", al-Ahali, 8 October 1986.
42.
Mahmoud Fawzi, Abu-Ghazallah wa Asrar al-Iqulah (The secrets of firing Abu- Ghazallah) ( Cairo, al-Jidawi Publishing, 1993), pp. 152-60.
43.
See lengthy interviews in prison with Colonel al-Zumur in Mahmud Fawzi, 'Abbud al-Zumur... Kayf Ightalna al-Sadat?! (How we assassinated Sadat?!), ( Beirut: Hatiah, 1993), pp. 45-46. 124-47. Al-Zumur revealed that Islamist groups value having members with military background because they enhance the performance of major organizational and fighting tasks, as well as systematize and rationalize decision making. See Ibid., 85-86.
44.
Interview with Tal'at Qaslm of the Islamic group in al-Ahali, 9 February 1994, p. 3; and statements of a leader of "the vanguards of Islamic conquest" in al-Ahali, 8 September 1993, p. 4.
45.
Caryle Murphy, "Egypt: An Uneasy Portent of Change", Current History 93, no. 580 ( February 1994): 78-82.
46.
al-Mussawr, 17 December 1993, pp. 16-19.
47.
See al-Mussawar, 8 January 1993, pp. 82-83, and 23 July 1993, pp. 22-23.
48.
al-Ahram, 7 February 1994, p. 3. A month earlier, the Minister of Defense, Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi, has testified before the National Security committee in the Parliament about the need for coordinating the efforts of all ministries, including his own, to counter the escalation of violence. One influential writer stressed that a role for the army against violent Islamist groups would be in accordance with its constitutional responsibilities and that the coordination between the military and security agencies has to become more comprehensive. Ahmad Hamrush, "Madha Sayaf'al al-Jaysh Amam allrhab? (What will the army do against terrorism?)", Roz-al-Youssef, 3 January 1994; and "al-Jaysh... Limadha Yatasada lil Irhab (The army... Why should it confront terrorism?)", Roz-al-Youssef, 24 January 1994, p. 28.

REFERENCES

Beattie Kirk. "Egypt: Thirty-five Years of Praetorian Politics". In Constantine P. Danopoulos , ed., Military Disengagement from Politics. London: Routledge, 1988.

-----. Egypt during the Nasser Years. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994.

Beeri Eliezer. Army Officers in Arab Society and Politics. New York: Praeger, 1970.

Dekmejian R. Hrair. Egypt under Sasir: A Study of Political Dynamics. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1971.

Perlmutter Amos. Egypt: The Praetorian State. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1974.

Springborg Robert. Mubarak's Egypt: Fragmentation of the Political Order. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1989.

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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