The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview

INDIA

Veena Gill

Democratic institutions and processes have been under considerable strain in the last two decades in India. Tendencies towards the use of force rather than negotiation and compromise in solving conflicts of a socioeconomic and political nature have altered the political landscape. In the light of new political situations with the complete breakdown of civil administration in several states of India and the increasing role of the army in aid of civil authority, it is pertinent to ask if existing civil-military relations are likely to remain unchanged in the near future. The frequent resort by politicians to the army to resolve law-and-order crises, its day-to-day close cooperation with civilians, as in Kashmir, the consequent increased political socialization among officers and the rank and file raises doubts about the future of the "nonpolitical" profile of the Indian army.

In 1947, British colonial rule was terminated; the country was partitioned, and the new state of Pakistan came into existence. In 1971 yet another new state was carved out of Pakistan, Bangladesh. The domestic role of the Indian army has diverged radically from its Pakistan and Bangladesh counterparts, which have been embroiled in politics almost since the inception of those states.

Studies in recent years have focused upon the nature of the military establishment itself in order to answer the question of why the Indian armed forces have exercised restraint in the political arena.1 An explanation of military non- intervention is expressed in terms of its professionalism and organization. The ethnic composition, socioeconomic background, recruitment, and training officers and soldiers is seen as not being conducive to military intervention.

It is not sufficient to link the military's political or nonpolitical behavior simply to the level of political institutionalization of a society2 or to the nature of its military organization.3 The point of departure in this study therefore is the weight given to the political attitudes and beliefs, the "political perspectives of the military."4 Decisions to involve militaries politically are made most often by its senior leadership. No analysis of civil-military relations can be made

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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