The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview

status in society. The increased participation of the military in internal security matters has expanded its role in domestic politics. At the same time, its extended "aid to civil" operations have made it more vulnerable to public criticism. Close day-to-day participation with civilians in affected areas has led to its political socialization and allowed it to assess at close hand the role of politicians in these crises. A close reading of the published literature by retired senior military officers involved in these various operations suggests the military's frustration with being called in much too frequently and often with good cause by an incapable political leadership to resolve by force what are essentially political crises. In divergence from current political opinion, some of these senior officers suggest political rather than military solutions in the various conflict-ravaged areas, while others argue for new operational doctrines and a greater institutionalization of the military's role in internal security.

There is no doubt that the overriding importance of the military's internal security role in recent years has affected the professional attitudes of its soldiers and officers, although generally the norm of civilian supremacy still prevails. Politicization of the military has slowly but certainly begun to affect the nature of its professionalism. What consequences this is likely to have on the future of civil-military relations depends basically upon how adept politicians are in handling the diverse socio-ethno-political crises by democratic means rather than by the use of armed force and upon the political perspectives of the senior military leadership and their continued belief and acceptance of civilian supremacy. Changes in civil-military relations will as in the past continue to be incremental rather than abrupt and dramatic. With the breakdown of the Soviet Union, uncertainty about future procurement of military hardware has been a hard blow for the Indian military. Undoubtedly the military will give priority to its professional tasks over its other political concerns such as its internal security role, just as, in the changing strategic and political environment, effecting continued civilian control over the military will certainly be on the priority list for India's civilian leadership.


NOTES
1.
Interview with Lt. Gen. Jagijit Singh Arora. Also, see Rajesh Kadian civilcomments concerning the changing ethos of the Indian army; see his India and Its Army ( New Delhi: Vision Books, 1990).
2.
S. P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968); and S. E. Finer, The Man on Horseback ( London: Pall Mall Press, 1962).
3.
S. P. Huntington, The Soldier and the State ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957); and Morris Janowitz, The Military in the Political Development of New Nations ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964).
4.
This perspective has been used by the author in the study of the Pakistan military; see Veena Gill, "Military Rule in Pakistan: A Choice Theoretic Analysis" (paper presented at the 14th IPSA Congress, Washington, D.C., 28 August-1 September 1988).

-186-

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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