The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview

years following the Yom Kippur War. The rules of the game were developed in the 1950s and 1960s, when the collective security effort did not impose especially heavy burdens in casualties, morale, and material resources. Both the Sinai Campaign and the Six-Day War claimed relatively few casualties, did not exact inordinate costs, and were short. In the 1970s and 1980s, however, the cost of national security greatly increased, during both wartime and the periods in between, in terms of material resources, casualties, and prolonged emergence mobilization. Thus, the longer periods of reserve duty imposed following the wars of the 1970s and 1980s have been one factor in motivating young people to go abroad for extended periods of time and even to leave Israel altogether. The rising cost of national security has also increased the influence of the military-industrial complex on policymaking, thus imposing other constraints, not directly related to security, on the political leadership.

A third factor that threatens the rules of the game is the weakening of the national consensus concerning the nature of the Arab-Israeli conflict and its possible solutions. The fundamental ideological disputes over Israel's central national goals assumed significance in the wake of the Six-Day War. This has led to a political polarization that could seriously impair the effective functioning of Israel's democracy, making it more difficult to mobilize the resources necessary to maintain current levels of security and to ensure public ease in abiding unconditionally by authoritative policy decisions in matters of national security.


NOTES
1.
See Official Gazette 1948, Appendix A, p. 9 (Hebrew).
2.
See Meir Pail, The Emergence of Zahal ( Tel Aviv: Zmora; Bitan-Moden, 1970), ch. 11 (Hebrew).
3.
See Anita Shapira, The Army Controversy, 1948: Ben-Gurion's Struggle for Control ( Tel-Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 1985), pp. 50-57 (Hebrew); Yoav Gelber, The Dissolution of the Palmach ( Tel Aviv: Schoken, 1986), pp. 225-26 (Hebrew).
4.
See Yoram Peri, Between Battles and Ballots: Israeli Military in Politics ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), p. 60.
6.
Yoram Peri and Moshe Lissak, "Retired Officers in Israel and the Emergence of a New Elite", in Gwyn Haries-Jenkins and Jacques van Doom, eds., The Military and the Problem of Legitimacy, pp. 188-190 ( Beverly Hills and London: Sage Publications, 1976).
7.
See interview with Sharon, New York Times, 1 November 1973; see also H. Bartov , Dado: 48 Years Plus 20 Days, vol. 2 ( Tel Aviv: Maariv, 1973), p. 313 (Hebrew).
8.
See editorial on Sharon's position in the IDF reserves in Haaretz, 17 December 1974 (Hebrew).
9.
A. R. Luckham, "A Comparative Typology of Civil-Military Relations", Government and Opposition 13 (Winter 1971): 5-25.
10.
See Yoram Peri, "Political Military Partnership in Israel", International Political Science Review 2, no. 3 ( 1981): 303-315.

-233-

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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