empted economic hardship as a cause for their discontent. However, Kenya's
deep economic recessions in the early 1980s and the present have fueled discontent among the people and the armed forces propelling the failed coup in 1982.
A potential trouble spot in Kenya's future of civil-military relations in Kenya
is the cost and size of the military compared to other governmental expenditures,
especially during the post-Cold War period. Another potential danger involves
one-party rule. As Kenya opens its doors to multiparty competition, the development of a coalition government may become a necessity. This move could,
in turn, destabilize governmental relations, leading the executive branch of the
government to resort to military force and coercion in the absence of a clear
political mandate and consensus.
Colin Leys, Underdevelopment in Kenya ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), p. 29.
See Cobie Harris, "The Persistence and Fragility of Civilian Rule in Kenya", in Constantine Danopoulos, ed., Civilian Rule in the Developing World ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1992).
See George Bennett, "Settlers and Politics in Kenya", in
Vincent Harlow and
E. M. Chilver
, eds., History of East Africa, vol. 2 ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965).
Carl G. Rosberg Jr., and
John Nottingham, The Myth of the "Mau Mau": Nationalism in Kenya ( New York: Praeger, 1966), pp. 120-96.
This concept is derived from Richard Sklar's seminal work on class and politics
in Nigeria. See Richard Sklar, "Contradictions in the Nigerian Political System", in
C. S. Whitaker, eds., African Politics and Problems in Development ( Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Reinner, 1991), pp. 77-89.
For a detailed and systematic analysis of the impact of the commercialization of
agriculture on Kenyan society, see Gavin Kitching, Class and Economic Change in
Kenya ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965).
Winston Churchill, My African Journey ( London: Hodder-Stoughton, 1908), p. 36.
See Lord Hailey, Native Administration in the British African Territories. Part I.
East Africa: Uganda, Kenya, Tanganyika ( London: H.M.S.O., 1950), p. 101.
Donald Rothchild, Racial Bargaining in Independent Kenya ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973), pp. 62-103. For the most detailed and comprehensive study of
British colonial legislative policy, see Martin Wight, The Development of the Colonial
Legislative Council, vols. 1-4 ( London: Faber and Faber, 1945).
Oginga Odinga, Not Yet Ohuru ( London: Hill and Wang, 1967), pp. 285-305.
Leys, Underdevelopment in Kenya, pp. 125-30.
Bilad Kaggia, quoted in
William Ochieng, "Independent Kenya 1963-1986", in W. R. Ochieng, ed., A Modern History of Kenya ( Nairobi: Evans Brothers Limited, 1989),
Bilad Kaggia, quoted in
Paul Ogulla unpublished manuscript, "A History of the
Kenya's People Union," 1980.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The Political Role of the Military:An International Handbook.
Contributors: Constantine P. Danopoulos - Editor, Cynthia Watson - Editor.
Publisher: Greenwood Press.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1996.
Page number: 269.
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