The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview

has subjected its strategy to that of civilian leaders; because civilian leaders did not respond appropriately to early-warning signals from the military; and because the military forces, not civilian authorities, were the victims of the initial guerrilla attack. Differences in opinion between the civilian and military leadership and within the political leadership itself as to what strategy the government should pursue readily became apparent. The longer Mexico's leadership delays in attacking serious economic and social problems, the more likely it is that the military will be called on to resolve violent disputes.


NOTES
1.
Roderic Ai Camp, Generals in the Palacio: The Military in Modem Mexico ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 69.
2.
For background, see Edwin Lieuwen, Mexican Militarism ( Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1968).
3.
Emilio Portes Gil, appointed by Congress as the provisional president of Mexico in 1928, was not a revolutionary general, but a lawyer. He replaced general Alvaro Obregón, the president-elect, who was assassinated before taking office.
4.
José Luis Piñeyro, Ejército y sociedad en México: Pasado y presente ( Puebla: Universidad Autónomo de Puebla, 1985), p. 56.
5.
Jorge Alberto Loyoza, El Ejército mexicano ( 1911- 1965) ( Mexico: El Colegio de México, 1970), p. 4.
6.
Roderic Ai Camp, The Making of a Government: Political Leaders in Modern Mexico ( Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1984), p. 40.
7.
Camp, Generals in the Palacio, p. 67.
8.
Phyllis Greene Walker, The Modern Mexican Military: Political Influence and Institution Interests in the 1980s, (Master's thesis, American University, 1987), 40.
9.
For example, see Calude E. Welch Jr., No Farewell to Arms? Military Disengagement from Politics in Africa and Latin America ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1987), p. 17.
10.
For a discussion of these "residual" roles, see David Ronfeldt, ed., The Modem Mexican Military: A Reassessment (La Jolla: Center for United States-Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego, 1984), pp. 1-31.
11.
George Philip, The Presidency in Mexican Politics ( New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992), pp. 19-63, discusses its implications in considerable detail.
12.
For empirical evidence, see my "Generals and Politicians in Mexico: A Preliminary Comparison", in Ronfeldt, ed., Modern Mexican Military, p. 136ff.
13.
See, for example, Enrique Alducin Abitia, Los valores de los mexicanos: México entre la tradición y la modernidad ( México: Fondo Cultural Banamex, 1986), p. 176.
14.
Peter H. Smith, "The 1988 Presidential Succession in Historical Perspective", in Wayne A. Cornelius et al., eds., Mexico's Alternative Political Futures (La Jolla: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, UCSD, 1989), pp. 391-416.
15.
Oscar Hinojosa, "Su voto demonstró que los militares no son homogeneamente governistas", Proceso, 8 August 1988, p. 19.
16.
For some background, see Alden Cunningham, "Mexico's National Security in the 1980-1990s", in Ronfeldt, ed., Modern Mexican Military, p. 167.
17.
Olga Pellicer de Brody, "National Security Concerns in Mexico: Traditional No"

-281-

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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