The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview

erick M. Nunn has written recently, "The Peruvian army had out-paced the civilian institutions by the 1960s."107

The future of the Peruvian military and its intervention in politics depends on what happens in the civil war against the Shining Path. "Not since 1879 has the Peruvian military faced as great a challenge as it confronts at the present."108 Masterson's conclusion is irrefutable: " Peru, now more than ever, needs a stable and progressive armed forces establishment to defeat the Sendero Luminoso insurgency and help rebuild the nation's shattered infrastructure once the war is over."109 And yet paradoxically, the successful professionalization of the military achieved to date has created a high degree of institutional complacency within the armed forces. Many insist on ignoring the threat posed by the Shining Path; only 15% of the defense budget is allocated to fighting the Sendero insurgents. A few even maintain that there is a limit to what can be expected from military operations, as the struggle against the senderistas, like that against the Viet Cong in the 1960s and 1970s, can not be won militarily. Where there is consensus, however, is in the military's determination to preserve "the profession and the institution from excessive individual adventurism."110 The time of the caudillos is gone forever!


NOTES
1.
C. Astiz, Pressure Groups and Power Elites in Peruvian Politics ( Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1969), p. 131.
3.
Sir Robert Marett, Peru ( New York: Praeger, 1969), p. 121.
4.
Peter F. Klarén, "The Origins of Modern Peru, 1880-1930", in Leslie Bethell, ed., The Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. 5: c 1870 to 1930 ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 600.
5.
Frederick B. Pike, The Modern History of Peru ( New York: Praeger, 1967), p. 145.
6.
David P. Werlich, Peru: A Short History (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1978), p. 119.
8.
Cáceres was the most popular Peruvian war hero to survive the struggle with Chile. Jorge Basadre, Peru's internationally renowned historian of the republican era, praised the general for his military exploits during the War of the Pacific, elevating him to the company of the nation's greatest martyrs, Grau and Bolognesi. Unfortunately for Cáceres' reputation, however, "when Chilean bullets spared his life, he turned automatically into a great national caudillo. The nation thought that just as he had led his troops through rough terrain, chasms and cliffs, he could lead it through the prosaic but no less painful path of reconstruction." Basadre, Historia de la Rep£blica del Per£, vol. 6, 5th ed. ( Lima: Editorial PeruAmérica, S.A., 1964), p 2736. Cáceres did not live up to these expectations. As Basadre concluded, "even heros cannot craft the reins of government from the bloody wings of liberty. No solid building can be built with bayonets" ("Con las alas sangrientas de la libertad ni los héroes pueden fabricar riendas. Ning£n edificio sólido se construye sobre bayonetas"). Ibid., 2640.

-355-

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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