Seminal studies of U.S. civil-military relations include Samuel P. Huntington, The
Soldier and the State ( Cambridge: Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 1957); Huntington, The Common Defense ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1961); Morris Janowitz
, The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait ( New York: Free
Press, 1961); and Russell F. Weigley, Towards an American Army: Military Thought
from Washington to Marshall ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1962).
On U.S. security requirements and responses for the pre-Cold War or "geopolitical era," see Robert J. Art, "A Defensible Defense: America's Grand Strategy after the
Cold War", International Security, no. 4 (Spring 1991): 5-53.
For example, Cold War conditions posed new problems of interservice command
and control. This is well treated in historical perspective by C. Kenneth Allard, Command, Control and the Common Defense ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990).
An expert analysis of U.S. military professionalism in the Cold War years is
provided in Sam C. Sarkesian, Beyond the Battlefield: The New Military Profession ( New
York: Pergamon Press, 1981).
These developments can be traced in John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and
the Origins of the Cold War, 1941-1947 ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1972),
esp. pp. 282-352; and Adam Ulam, The Rivals: America and Russia since World War
II ( New York: Viking Press, 1971).
John Lewis Gaddis, The Long Peace: Inquiries into the History of the Cold War
( New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 114.
Robert Jervis, The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution ( Ithaca: Cornell University
Press, 1989); and Lawrence Freedman, The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy ( New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981).
This case is argued in Harry T. Summers, On Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the
Vietnam War ( New York: Dell Publishers, 1982), chapter 1.
For an account from the perspective of McNamara's staff, see Alain C. Enthoven
K. Wayne Smith, How Much Is Enough? Shaping the Defense Program, 1961-1969
( New York: Harper and Row, 1971), esp. pp. 117-64. See also William W. Kaufmann, The McNamara Strategy ( New York: Harper and Row, 1964).
Evolution of the NSC is discussed in John Prados, The Keepers of the Keys: A
History of the National Security Council from Truman to Bush ( New York: William
Morrow and Co., 1991).
For assessments of Goldwater-Nichols, see Robert J. Art, Strategy and Management in the Post-Cold War Pentagon ( Carlisle, Penn.: U.S. Army War College, Strategic
Studies Institute, 1992), and Rep.
Les Aspin, Chairman, and Rep.
William Dickenson, U.S. Congress, House Committee on Armed Services, Defense for a New Era: Lessons
of the Persian Gulf War ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992).