of international players in the conflict was no doubt based on perceived or
anticipated posturing by the United States and the former Soviet Union. Mobutu's comprehensive knowledge of the political alignments in the international
system enabled him to build external support. He must now deal with the reality
that the elimination of the Cold War seems to have "devalued the global 'worth'
of Africa."49 The emergence of a unipolar system suggests that African leaders
like Mobutu must demonstrate a political acumen that enhances their ability to
deal with the "conscience" of the western industrialized states now placing
enough pressure on them to embark on democracy and improved governance.
In short, the analytical importance of the democratization movement in Zaire is
now centered on the interplay between internal and international pressures for
Jean-Claude Williame, "Congo-Kinshasa: General Mobutu and Two Political
Claude E. Welch Jr., Soldier and State in Africa: A Comparative
Analysis of Military Intervention and Political Change (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1970), p. 148.
Cited in Ruth Slade, King Leopold's Congo: Aspects of the Development of Race
Relations in the Congo Independent State (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1974), 175.
Michael G. Schatzberg, The Dialectics of Oppression in Zaire ( Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988), p. 54. Also see Jean-Claude Williame, Patrimonialism
and Political Change in the Congo (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972), p. 59.
Williame, Patrimonialism and Political Change in the Congo, p. 60.
L. H. Gann and
Peter Duignan, The Rulers of Belgian Africa: 1884-1914 ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979), pp. 65-66.
Williame, Patrimonialism and Political Change in the Congo, p. 61.
Egil Fossum, "Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Military Coups d'Etat in
Latin America", Journal of Peace Research 3 ( 1987): 236.
Claude E. Welch Jr., and
Arthur K. Smith, Military Role and Rule: Perspectives
on Civil-Military Relations (North Scituate, Mass.: Duxbury Press, 1974), 12.
Samuel E. Finer, The Man on Horseback: The Role of the Military in Politics
( New York: Praeger, 1962), p. 21.
Alan P. Merriam, Congo: Background of Conflict (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern
University Press, 1970), p. 23.
Claude E. Welch Jr., "The Roots and Implication of Military Intervention", in Welch, ed., Soldier and State in Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Military Intervention
and Political Change (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1970), p. 23.
Nzongola-Ntalaja, "The Continuing Struggle for National Liberation in Zaire", Journal of Modern African Studies 17 ( 1979): 600-601.
Crawford Young and
Thomas Turner, The Rise and Decline of the Zairian State
( Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), p. 52.
Victor A. Olurunsola with
Dan Muhzewi, "Security and Stability Implications ofEthnicity and Religious Factors"
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The Political Role of the Military:An International Handbook.
Contributors: Constantine P. Danopoulos - Editor, Cynthia Watson - Editor.
Publisher: Greenwood Press.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1996.
Page number: 456.
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