Haughty Conquerors: Amherst and the Great Indian Uprising of 1763

By William R. Nester | Go to book overview

he also briefly raised Iroquois prestige by granting them the power to dispose of lands that they did not own and whose loss they would not mourn. He paid them handsomely for that "concession," along with the Shawnee and Delaware, who did hunt in Kentucky, and agreed to give up their land only with extreme reluctance.

But the Cherokee also claimed that land and were willing to part with it only to the Kanawha River, as instructed by Whitehall and negotiated by Stuart. The southern superintendent and Cherokee protested the Fort Stanwix Treaty. The result was a compromise. Whitehall rejected the Tennesee River boundary but instructed Stuart to redraw his line westward. Under the Treaty of Lochaber on October 22, 1770, the Cherokee agreed to a line etched due south of the Kanawha River mouth and in 1770 from the Scioto River mouth. Thus did the Fort Stanwix Treaty knock open the gates to the "dark and bloody ground" that Daniel Boone, scores of other longhunters, and eventually hundreds and thousands of settlers would stride through, leading to a generation of warfare with the Indians there. But that is another story.

Despite that controversy, the Fort Stanwix treaty forged the final links in a series of boundaries previously negotiated. The line zigzagged back and forth across the Appalachian watershed which Whitehall's 1763 proclamation designated as the proper division between Americans and Indians. The frontier fell far east of that boundary along the western ends of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. It was at the boundary between North Carolina and Virginia where the line shot west over the Appalachian watershed and sliced across eastern Kentucky to the Ohio River, and then up it and beyond east of the watershed once again, where it would pass back and forth until the Hudson River. The boundary line combined with trade rules to satisfy the outstanding conflicts which had provoked the Indian uprising of 1763. "Amherst's War" symbolically ended with the Fort Stanwix Treaty.


NOTES
1
Pennsylvania Assembly to Benjamin Franklin and Richard Jackson, January 19, 1767, in James Sullivan and A. C. Flick, eds., The Papers of William Johnson (hereafter cited as Johnson Papers), 14 vols. ( Albany: State University of New York, 1921- 1965), 12:418, 417-19.
2
Journal of Indian Affairs, March 2, 1765, Johnson Papers, 4:530.
3
Proceedings of Johnson and Indians, April 29 to May 22, 1765, in E. B. O'Callaghan and Berthold Fernow, eds., Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York (hereafter cited as NYCD), 15 vols. ( Albany, N.Y.: Weed, Parsons, and Co., 1856- 1887), 7:726, 718-38.
4
Proceedings of William Johnson with Indians, April 29 to May 22, 1765, NYCD 7:718-41; William Johnson to Lords of Trade, July 1765, ibid., 7:746.

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Haughty Conquerors: Amherst and the Great Indian Uprising of 1763
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Introduction vii
  • Notes xiii
  • 1 - Conquest "Where Are We Now? The French Are All Subdued" 1
  • Notes 31
  • 2 - Conspiracies "Destroy Their Forts and Make Them Rue the Day" 35
  • Notes 66
  • 3 - Attacks "And Drive These Britons Hence Like Frightened Deer" 73
  • Notes 103
  • 4 - Counterattacks "Big with Their Victories" 107
  • Notes 145
  • 5 - Stalemate "Leave These Distant Lakes and Streams to Us" 149
  • Notes 179
  • 6 - Subjection "To Be a Vassal to His Low Commanders" 185
  • Notes 223
  • 7 - Settlements "Nay Think Us Conquered, and Our Country Theirs" 231
  • Notes 269
  • 8 - Consequencesl "Whom See We Now, Their Haughty Conquerors" 279
  • Notes 283
  • Index 285
  • About the Author *
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