See the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed by the U.N.
General Assembly on December 10, 1948. Obviously, a declaration does not of
itself provide for performance. Nevertheless, the Declaration sets a standard and
announces a direction. Like Pandora's box, once opened, for good or ill, it cannot
be closed again and put away.
Esther B. Fein, "Failure to Discuss Dying Adds to Pain of Patients and Family", New York Times, March 5, 1997.
Gregory E. Pence, Classic Cases in Medical Ethics, second edition ( Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1995), p. 298.
Renee Fox and
Judith Swazey, The Courage to Fail. A Social View of Organ
Transplants and Dialysis, second edition ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), p. 232.
Jacinta Kerin, and
William Byne, "The Ethics
of Genetic Research on Sexual Orientation", Hastings Center Report, Vol. 27, No. 4 ( July-August 1997), p. 9.
Mildred Z. Solomon et al., "Decisions Near the End of Life: Professional
Views on Life-Sustaining Treatments", American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 83, No. 1 ( January 1993), p. 15.
David J. Rothman, Strangers at the Bedside ( New York: Basic Books, 1991),
Eric J. Cassell, "The Sorcerer's Broom: Medicine's Rampant Technology", Hastings Center Report, Vol. 23, No. 6 ( November-December 1993), p. 39.
Dennis Breo, "Altered Fates: An Interview with Francis Collins", Journal of
the American Medical Association, Vol. 209, No. 15 ( August 21, 1993), p. 20-21.
Nicholas Wade, "Scientists Cultivate Cells at Root of Human Life", New York
Times, November 6, 1998, and "Human Cells Revert to Embryo State, Scientists
Assert", New York Times, November 12, 1998.
Charles Siebert, "Carol Palumbo Waits for Her Heart", New York Time Magazine, April 13, 1997, p. 41.
Donald G. McNeil Jr., "AIDS Stalking Africa's Struggling Economies"," New
York Times, November 15, 1998.
For the story of AIDS, of public neglect, and of the campaign to overcome
Randy Shilts, And the Band Played On ( New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987).
Andrew Sullivan, "When Plagues End", New York Times Magazine, November 10, 1996, p. 57.
In 1995, which is the last year, at this writing, for which U.S. figures are
available, there were 365 sets of quadruplets and 57 sets of quintuplets, sextuplets, and more.
George Khushf, "Embryo Research: The Ethical Geography of the Debate", Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Vol. 22, No. 5 ( October 1997), p. 510.