Protecting Constitutional Freedoms: A Role for Federal Courts

By Daan Braveman; Paul L. Murphy | Go to book overview
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Notes
1.
Comment, The Civil Rights Act: Emergence of Adequate Federal Civil Remedy? 76 IND. L. J. 361, 363 ( 1951).
2.
365 U.S. 167 ( 1961).
3.
Id. at 183.
4.
P. SCHUCK, SUING GOVERNMENTS: CITIZEN REMEDIES FOR OF- FICIAL WRONGS 200 ( 1983).
5.
See Whitman, Constitutional Torts, 79 MICH. L. REV. 5 ( 1980).
6.
Section 1983 applies against persons who act under color of state law and, thus, does not apply to federal officials.
7.
436 U.S. 658 ( 1978).
8.
Id. at 690.
9.
See Oklahoma City v. Tuttle, 471 U.S. 808 ( 1985).
10.
See, e.g., Bandes, Monell, Parratt, Daniels and Davidson: Distinguishing a Custom or Policy from Random Unauthorized Act, 72 IOWA L. REV. 101 ( 1986); Mead, 42 U.S.C. Section 1983; Municipality Liability: The Monell Sketch Becomes a Distorted Picture, 65 N.C.L. REV. 518 ( 1987).
11.
See, e.g., City of St. Louis v. Praprotnik, 108 S. Ct. 915 ( 1988); Pembaur v. Cincinnati, 475 U.S. 469 ( 1986); Oklahoma City v. Tuttle, 471 U.S. 808 ( 1988). Recently, the Court did eliminate one source of confusion. In City of Canton v. Harris--U.S.--( 1989) ( 57 U.S. L.W. 4270, Feb. 28, 1989), it held that municipality liability under Section 1983 is not limited to instances where the policy itself is unconstitutional. Such liability can also be found when a valid policy is applied in an unconstitutional manner so long as the application can be attributed to the entity itself.
12.
Oklahoma City v. Tuttle, 471 U.S. 808, 823 n.6 ( 1985).
13.
Snyder, The Final Authority Analysis: A Unified Approach to Municipal Liability Under Section 1983, 1986 Wis. L. REV. 633.
14.
Pembaur v. Cincinnati, 475 U.S. 469, 481 n.9 ( 1986).
15.
Compare Pembaur v. Cincinnati, 475 U.S. 469 ( 1986) with City of St. Louis v. Praprotnik, 108 S.Ct. 915 ( 1988).
16.
Pembaur v. Cincinnati, 475 U.S. 469, 483 n.12 ( 1986) (Justice Brennan joined by Justices Marshall, White, and Blackmun).
17.
City of St. Louis v. Praprotnik, 108 S.Ct. 915,925 ( 1988).
18.
Id. at 928 ( Brennan, J., concurring).
19.
Brown, Municipal Liability under Section 1983 and the Ambiguities of Burger Court Federalism: A Comment on City of Oklahoma City v. Tuttle and Pembaur v. City of Cincinnati--the "Official Policy" Cases, 27 B.C.L. REV. 833, 909 ( 1986).

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