Mark Selden, The Political Economy of Chinese Development (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharp, 1993), p. 4.
Local governments as economic actors are well described and discussed in Andrew G. Walder, ed., Zouping in Transition: The Process of Reform in Rural North
China ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998).
Walder, ed., Zouping in Transition, p. 17.
See Herbert A. Simon, "A Behavior Model of Rational Choice", Quarterly
fournal of Economics, vol. 69 ( 1955), pp. 99-118; and Charles Lindblom, "The Science
of Muddling Through", Public Administration Review, vol. 19 ( spring 1959), pp. 79-88.
5. See Doak Barnett, Uncertain Passage ( Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 1974); Harry Harding, Organizing China (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1981);
and Dorothy Solinger, Chinese Business under Socialism ( Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1984). 6.
See Parris Chang, Power and Policy in China (University Park: Pennsylvania
State University Press, 1975); Lucian Pye, The Dynamics of Chinese Politics ( Cambridge, Mass.: Oelgeschlager, Gunn and Hain, 1981); and Andrew Nathan, "A
Factional Model for CCP Politics", China Quarterly, no. 53 ( January-March 1973), pp. 33-66.
See Kenneth Lieberthal and
Michael Oksenberg, Policy Making in China:
Leaders, Structures, and Processes ( Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988).
Private entities vary greatly. We should be cautious in using the term, as
private entities in China are very different from their counterparts elsewhere.
Even with the implementation of the responsibility system in rural areas, it
is still the Party organization that is in charge. Huang Shumin's description of a
village Party secretary very well illustrates the role of the village Party organization
in the reform. See Huang Shumin, The Spiral Road ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1989).
Douglas A. Chalmers, "Corporatism and Comparative Politics", in
Howard J. Wiarda
, ed., New Directions in Comparative Politics ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1991), p. 59.
Chalmers, "Corporatism and Comparative Politics", p. 73.
Douglas A. Chalmers discusses these problems in detail. See Chalmers, "Corporatism and Comparative Politics", pp. 59-81.
Philippe Schmitter, "Still the Century of Corporatism?" in
Frederick B. Pike
Thomas Stritch, eds., The New Corporatism: Social and Political Structures in the
Iberian World ( Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1974), pp. 93-94.
Chalmers, "Corporatism and Comparative Politics", p. 61.
See Xueguang Zhou, "Unorganized Interests and Collective Action in Communist China", American Sociological Review, vol. 58 ( February 1993), pp. 54-73.
See Baohui Zhang, "Corporatism, Totalitarianism, and Transitions to Democracy", Comparative Political Studies, vol. 27 no. 1 ( April 1994), pp. 108-36.
For instance, studies by Gudmund Hemes and Arne Selvik, Suzanne Berger,
and others. See Suzanne Berger, ed., Organizing Interests in Western Europe ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).