require ideological solutions. However, ideological solutions may not
be available, partly because the ideological excesses from 1958 to 1978 created an aversion among the peasantry to ideological solutions.
Power is not shared through institutional arrangement in China, and
power wielding is largely subject to individual Party and government
officials' consciences. They are not exempt from materialistic appeals
in an environment of "money worship." Guanxi politics, based on
interpersonal relations and connections and unconstrained by institutional checks, is enabling power holders to pursue personal gain at the
expense of the state and peasantry and to evade responsibility under
the current framework of "socialism with competitive capitalism."
How did the CCP respond to the peasant challenge? Two responses to
the peasant challenge by the CCP are discussed in the next two chapters:
village elections in chapter 6 and the establishment of Deng Xiaoping
Theory in chapter 7.
Renmin Ribao, overseas edition ( December 27, 1994), p. 1.
Renmin Ribao, overseas edition ( October 31, 1994), p. 1.
Renmin Ribao, overseas edition ( October 19, 1998), p. 1.
Brantly Womack, The Party and the People: Revolutionary and
Postrevolutionary Politics in China and Vietnam, World Politics, vol. 39, no. 4 ( July 1987), p. 480.
"Do Not Forget the Fish-Water Relationship", special commentator, Renmin
Ribao ( August 19, 1978), p. 1.
Li Rui, Lushan Huiyi Shilu ( Wuhan: Chunqiu and Hunan jiaoyu chubanshe, 1988), p. 363.
Mark Selden, The Political Economy of Chinese Development (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1993), p. 190.
James C. Scott Weapons of the Weak is a pioneering study of the ways peasants
assert themselves through illegitimate means. Scott's study is based on Southeast
Asian rural society. See James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant
Resistance ( New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985).
Daniel Kelliher, Peasant Power in China ( New Haven, Conn.: Yale University
Press, 1992), pp. 239-42.
For discussions of peasants under the people's commune, see Sulamith H. Potter
Jack M. Potter, Chinese Peasant: The Anthropology of Revolution ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); and Selden, Political Economy of Chinese
"A Survey of China", The Economist ( March 18, 1995), p. 19.
Kelliher, Peasant Power in China, p. 31.
Carlos Wing-Hung Lo and Sai-Wing Leung, "Environmental Protection and
Popular Environmental Consciousness in China", in
Joseph Y. S. Cheng, ed., China
Review 1998 ( Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1998), p. 511.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The Political Economy of Rural Development in China, 1978-1999.
Contributors: Weixing Chen - Author.
Publisher: Praeger Publishers.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1999.
Page number: 117.
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